Description Parodonthopathies

The term Parodonthopathies called Periodontal disease. Is complex periodontal tissues which are in close anatomical and functional relationship to the tooth. Periodontal main function is tostrengthen the tooth in the bone bed.

Belong here gums – gingiva periosteum (periosteum) alveolar jawbone itself bone bed, hanging apparatus tooth cement, a material that covers the tooth in the neck and root – this is an alternative glass, that covers the tooth than in its the visible part – the crown of the tooth. The tooth is placed in the bone bed around it is narrow so tonnage. Periodontal gap which is around the root of the tooth in the so called expanded. Apical compartment.

The parodontopatiím belong basically three major pathological situations:

  1. gingivitis – inflammation of the gums
  1. periodontitis or periodontal disease
  1. Periodontal atrophy


Signs and symptoms Parodonthopathies

Gingivitis is a gum disease inflammatory nature of her disability. It can be attributed to a number of causes, but the main reason is the presence of plaque – a so called. Contingent plaque gingivitis.Dental plaque is also closely associated with the development of tooth decay (caries).

Dental plaque can be considered as a very unique ecological unit which is formed by bacteria and matrix extracellular matrix which is partly salivary and bacterial origin. Dental plaque consists ofcharacteristic bacteria. They are especially Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mitis,Streptococcus sanguis etc.).

Bacteria use sugars which ferments to organic acids, which act on the enamel of the tooth which demineralize (from glass pull calcium) softens enamel, are formed in the cavities, which are filled with the remnants of food and bacteria are further propagated. And produce proteolytic enzymesthat break down the organic constituents of the tooth. Formed dental caries, which can spread to the deeper parts zubu- to tooth dentine and into dental pulp.

Dental pulp is a vital component of the tooth, which contained blood vessels and nerves in the small ligament stroma. Infection with bacteria causes necrosis and gangrene of dental pulp – tooth dies.To summarize we can say that the caries are important factors such as bacteria, the presence of sugars from the food, and also the time that they man poor oral hygiene affords work. This whole concept of caries describes Miller’s challenges from acidogenic parasitic theory of the 1889th

Microorganisms have a negative impact on the gums where the dental plaque, tartar, bad bite or bad dentures irritate the gingiva and cause the inflammation.

Gingival inflammation may be caused by other factors. An example might be a disease calledgingivostomatits herpetica. It is a disease that causes inflammation of the gums – gingiva, as well as inflammation of the mucosa ústní- stomatitis. Caused by a virusherpes simplex labialis(T1 form).

The disease is an expression of primary infection – the infection, when a person with the virus meets for the first time, therefore, takes place in small children. Affected children are 1-3 years old. The incubation period of the disease is about 5 days. The first patient found prodromal stage when a child has a fever, is generally altered, it hurts your muscles, joints). Later, the fever subsides, and come with blisters in the mouth, which easily lose their krytbu – disease significantly hurt the child refuses to eat and threatening dehydration, so in more serious cases, it is necessary to hospitalize the child to drive the infectious department.

The virus, however, fail to completely cure because the virus hides (persists) before immune system in trigeminal ganglia – trigeminal ganglion Gasser (this nerve inter alia enables the sensitivity of the skin of the face). There, the virus survives virtually the entire human life. Lowering immunity humans, e.g. excessive physical stress associated with dehydration, fever, etc. The formation of the characteristic haze.
Another example inflammation of the gingiva may be necrotizing gingivostomatitis, which is caused by overgrowth anaerobic bacteria of the genus Fusobacterium and spirochetes – Treponema Vincent, but also many others. Disease mainly affects people aged 17 to 24 years, and will result in acute inflammation of the gingiva that necrotic. A very common symptom is putrid smell from the mouth – phoetor ex ore. Treatment involves strict hygiene of the oral cavity, rinses oxidants, particularly hydrogen peroxide. In severe cases, antibiotics.

Disability gingiva is also very common in AIDS, leukemia, damage after taking medication, etc.

Periodontitis is a very common disease that affects about a third of the population of the Czech Republic. Men and women are affected about equally. Most often, the disease manifests itself during 35- 40 years old. With increasing age, the frequency of the disease increases.
If we expect to periodontitis and chronic gingivitis, which is a precursor of the disease, so affected about 85% of the population, an enormous number. This disease plus caries are basically the most common diseases in general.

The biggest inconvenience for patients with periodontitis (advanced) is a progressive loosenessand loss of teeth. At first glance it might seem that this is a relatively harmless disease, but there are studies from the US, claiming that a pregnant woman with periodontitis has about 7 times greater likelihood of miscarriage or birth of a child who has a low birth weight. The study further states that dental treatment for these women would prevent about every fifth premature birth.

Periodontitis, however, increases the risk of complications in people with diabetes, heart or lung disease. Large amounts of bacteria may in fact when food intake or chewing get into the blood (this is done as normally in healthy humans). A person with defective heart valves or after the compensation is at risk of endocarditis, which is in many cases fatal. Such examples of this are numerous. Also disclosed is a higher risk of stroke – stroke.

Signs and symptoms of the disease are numerous. In principle, there is a reduction of the amount of cement for dental, destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus, and so-called loosening. Gingivodentálního closure (the structure that fixedly holds the teeth in the starting position).Gingival channel, the space around the tooth between them and gums, which is always present and is completely physiological, begins to extend into the pathological periodontal pocket. Epithelium grows here and nadzvihuje gum, so periodontal pockets with disease progression further increases.In these areas will inevitably get food remnants, which are propagated harmful bacteria, it maintains all the periodontal inflammation – spaces around the tooth – periodontal, gingival inflammation, which accentuates all of these processes, there is a vicious circle.

Hanging tooth apparatus is destructed, declining cement and the adjacent bone resorbed, all of which can expose dental neck (which normally can not be seen), and the looseness to the loss of teeth.

Gingivitis and periodontitis generally manifested by reddening and edema structures gum has atendency to bleed (bleeding gravity from the smallest degree when the gum bleeding after brushing, up to the stage where the bleed spontaneously). When periodontal inflammation and especially the apical area may be called. Retrograde pulpitis, therefore pulpitis tooth, where bacteria spread root system of the tooth. Inflammation marrow are also very painful and shooting. They appear mainly at night, when the head portion of the body more blood. Another symptom that may bother the patient and his surroundings is also bad breath.


prevention Parodonthopathies

Prevention for these diseases is very important, and therefore it is devoted an entire paragraph. The very epitome of a preventive method is regular and thorough oral hygiene.

In the first place the appropriate brushing teeth with a toothbrush, extremely important is the correct cleaning technique (education should be administered by a dentist on the model). Brushing your teeth removes plaque. Without dental plaque is tooth decay is not inflammation and periodontal disease.

One should clean your teeth at least twice a day, ideally after each meal, however. To a conventional toothbrush should have a dental floss or interdental brush that removes food debris from interdental spaces, where you get a normal toothbrush. A big mistake made by people who bleed when brushing your teeth gums and therefore clean the offending area less or not at all, and he thinks the gum saves. The opposite is true, because in these places propagated bacteria that exacerbate the problem.

The general council also lies in the fact that man is healthy teeth to avoid a number of problems since decayed teeth may be the site of focal infection: in principle, it is a fact that the rotten teeth keeps chronic disease, where it can spread the bacteria or their products and toxins into the body and cause inflammation of the kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, etc. is a higher risk of immunopathological response. People with reduced immunity (immunodeficiency from any cause), the risk of these complications even greater risk is for people after heart attacks, cancer treatment etc.


treatment of periodontal diseases

Treatment parodontopaií belongs in the hands of a dentist. He examined the teeth, periodontal probe is used, which is inserted into the periodontal pocket, finds its depth and the like. Furthermore takes radiograph teeth. Treatment consists of removing the decay, plaque, tartar, using special bacteria-killing products, etc. Sometimes surgery is needed to remove the cyst, damaged teeth are removed.



Is inflammation around the tooth root apex – periodontitis apicalis. The causes of the disease are many, but often it is the passage of infection from the pulp of the tooth system via the passage of the tooth root. There may be a trauma or damage when therapeutically used substances.

There are two forms of the disease: acute and chronic.

a) form an acute periodontitis manifests occurrence of inflammation when inflammatory forming fluid that later fester. Inflammation also falls on the bone alveolus which because of the increased activity of the osteoclasts (bone cell that removes bone tissue) decreases. This raises a picture of suppurative osteomyelitis.

If not allowed pus drain (trepanation tooth or its extraction), it will only accumulate between the bone and the periosteum (periosteum), periosteum is very good nerve supply (as opposed to the bone itself), and therefore its tension pus, which has nowhere else to drain , it is very painful.Beneath the periosteum accumulate pus until a shin abscess. The surrounding soft tissues are soaked with swelling. Subperiosteal abscess after completing their volume options ruptured periosteum is irritated and the pain disappears. Pus breaks through the oral cavity – there is an internal fistula or outer kůži- fistula is uncommon. In adverse situations, inflammation can spread soft tissues extend far there is called. Phlegmone and may be affected by another part of the bone.

Other forms of acute passes into chronic forms
b) chronic form is much more than finding the acute form of which can occur (with good anatomical ratio is allowed to flow pus) or may occur de novo. Chronic abscess is bordered with granulation tissue and the formation of the so. Dental granulomas. The granuloma can be sterile (free of bacteria), or it may persist for bacteria and cause acute exacerbations (flare) disease. The clinical form then vary the size of the granuloma, which may also take the form cysty- cystogranulom which contains epithelial cell nests.

Around the apex of the tooth root may be generated due to irritation and inflammatory cell proliferation Malassezových – (Hertwigovy root cells of the vagina) cyst, which is known as radicularcyst. This cyst is not the most common cystic findings. It’s called. Cyst odontogenic origin (eg .: in addition to follicular cysts, primordial, etc.). It is oriented so that it is centered at the tooth root which surrounds. Cyst enlarges and disposed adjacent bone. Clinically, it frequently does not show.

Other names: gum disease, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease, periodontal disease, atrophy periodontal gum disease and adjacent structures, periodentitida

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