Parkinson’s disease


Parkinson’s disease

Description of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease was first described in 1817 by London physician James Parkinson and translated into Czech as polio shaky.

In fact, but not polio, and so he was later renamed after its discoverer. In this disease, there is loss of nerve cells midbrain called black substance (substantia nigra). These cells are a major producer of dopamine, a substance that enables the transmission of signals (neurotransmitter) between nerve cells (neurons).

In the absence of dopamine person gradually loses the ability to control and coordinate its movements, muscle tension and automatic movements.

Parkinson’s disease is considered one of the most common degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Usually affects both sexes aged 50-60 years, more frequently, however, it occurs in men. Development of Parkinsonism lasts months to years and, unless treatment is initiated, occurs after the time for complete loss of momentum.

 

Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease

Usually you can not predict in advance who suffer this disease, because it is still not scientifically proven to actually cause it.One theory points to the possibility of genetic predispositionand the adverse impact of the external environment. It has even been shown to hereditary forms of the disease, but there are a substantial minority. Risk is also stated in heroin and other toxic substances entering viral brain infection and multiple contusions of the head. Other factors are not yet known.

 

Preventing Parkinson’s disease

No effective prevention of this disease, unfortunately, does not exist. However, they are available materials which are able to increase the production of dopamine and has a beneficial effect on the brain tissue and nerve function. Dopamine is a major producer of vitamin B6, which is contained mainly in avocados, potatoes, bananas, fish and poultry.

Positively affect brain function as well as herbs such as black cohosh, ginseng, passion flower,valerian and garlic.

 

Signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

The course and symptoms are for every human individual, and thus may manifest differently.

The first symptoms are usually quite inconspicuous, among them quicker tiredness, stiffness and difficulty ** ** limbs, convulsions, slow gait, and increased secretion of saliva, tears and sweat.Most patients but does not assign them greater importance until disease nepřehoupne second phase.

In close connection with the lack of dopamine occurs most typical symptom, not shaking (tremor).Dopamine operate on the motion damping (inhibitory) and, if the dopamine deficiency, is replaced by another transmitter (acetylcholine), whose influence is excitable (the excitation). Tremor first appears on one of the upper extremities, and later on both upper extremities, lower jaw, eyelids, forehead and lower extremities. Usually manifests itself only in peace, with the active movement suddenly disappearing.

Other symptoms include slow, uncoordinated movements face with minimal facial expression (ie. Mask) and shuffling gait bent.

Over time they are symptomatic and impaired balance, falls, vegetative disorders (constipation) and urinary incontinence (urinary disturbances).

There are frequent communication problems, difficulty with articulation (quiet, monotone speech), difficulty with writing (Reduce font size) and the start of any movement.

Anxiety, dementia, depression, loss of attention to mental confusion and memory loss is not a condition, but their occurrence is relatively frequent.

Muscle stiffness (rigidity) is also one of the main symptoms. Initially only affects one side of the body with increased muscle tension, which results in affected muscle must work through increased resistance. Patients have difficulty in trying to bring movement to the extreme position and often suffer from shoulder pain and back pain. Sometimes it also comes quite abrupt interruption of movement (ie. Freezing), and then the person is not a short time be able to complete the move

 

Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is not clearly detectable by any examination and its symptoms are specific for other diseases. Can be diagnosed only after excluding other causes of disease and after finding its course and symptoms.

Among practiced tests include blood donation, brain CT (Computed Tomography), EEG (electroencephalogram), the carotid arteries Sonography (ultrasound) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance).

 

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is currently incurable diseases, but there are many ways to slow down the process and ensure patients nearly a full life.

Treatment is usually initiated with different drugs, which vary according to the severity of the symptoms and associated diseases. Initially, the preparations usually used as amantadine orselegiline that protect affected parts of the brain and facilitate management signals.

In the phase when patients already pronounced tremor occurs, treatment is continued for example.Biperidinem and the last stage of the disease are usually prescribed levodopa preparation. This medicine is considered one of the most effective. It is absorbed from the small intestine into the blood and from there to the brain where it is converted to dopamine. This is the amount of the black substance will stabilize and to relieve symptoms and improve the psyche. After some time, however, reduces the effectiveness of the drug and the unpleasant symptoms of the disease begin to reappear.

Another treatment option is surgery. This is accessed but only in cases where the patient’s condition rapidly deteriorates, or at a stage where no other treatment has not helped. Suitable are 2 operating variants. The first, called. Pallidotomy, trying to achieve an improved state with destruction of brain tissue, specifically the pale nuclei (globus pallidus). A second option is to stimulate the brain via implanted electrodes.

Currently, scientists believe that an important role in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease might play the implantation of stem cells. This method, however, is still in the research stage.

Part of the treatment should also be working with a physiotherapist. In order to maintain muscle strength and tone, it is necessary daily exercise, especially walking. Active exercise should not lead to fatigue, which the body was more a matter of stress and symptoms could worsen. The positive effect was seen in massage, yoga and tai chi.

Furthermore, it is also recommended brain training exercises in memory, knowledge and orientation. It is advisable to pursue new interests and fulfilling various tasks.

May slow the development of symptoms and various food additives. The therapeutic effect is attributed to vitamin B6, E, C, coenzyme Q10, výtažkům of Ginkgo biloba leaf and the fish fat. The use is always first consult your doctor!

People with Parkinson’s disease, although not identified any dietary restrictions, but some experts believe that it is beneficial for the health of a diet rich in carbohydrates (eg. Grains, vegetables, rice, pasta) rather than protein (meat, dairy products). It has been shown that proteins (proteins) slow down the formation of levodopa.

 

How can I help myself

Based on the above information is self-medication based on regular consumption of medicines, enough physical and mental activities, respectively. use of dietary supplements.

It is also advisable to residential areas special security measures and ensure order. It is recommended to place the anti-slip mats for tiles and tub acquisition of stable seats and chairs with armrests and pay attention to cleaning small objects primarily from the floor (shoes, tools, clothes, …) to avoid the danger of falling.

Unpleasant depression can help connect the therapeutic group of people with the same problems.

 

Complications of Parkinson’s Disease

Itself Parkinson’s disease, although disease incurable, but not fatal. Cause of death in Parkinson’s are mostly a concomitant disease, mostly pneumonia.

It is also attributed to the premature deaths of depression and dementia, which are beginning to appear in affected people in the last stages of the disease.

Among the common disorders in Parkinson’s include anxiety, apathy, amnesia, impaired visual function (damage to the visual sensitivity, spatial orientation, inability resolution color or double vision), sleep disturbances, dizziness, joint and muscle pain, constipation, urinary incontinence and dysfunctions sex authorities.

 

Incidence of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease occurs worldwide in all human races, nationalities, regardless of the economic and social situation, standard of living, the type of food, or type of employment. The only reliable indicator of age, because from 90% only affects people older than 50 years

Other names: Parkinson’s disease, parkinsonism, paralysis shaky disease, Parkinson

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