Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts

Description of cysts on the ovary

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disease for which diagnosis is necessary to present several factors that occur together. It is a heterogeneous disease, and it means that its occurrence is involved in several pathological conditions simultaneously, not just one, as might be the title itself misunderstood.

It is not just one single disease that affects only one body, but its symptoms are evident at various points of the body. Ultrasound examinations can define ovarian cysts (criterion is the finding of eight or more cysts, ovarian saved under a bush and průmr should be up to 10mm), but their findings are very complex syndrome diagnosis, such as polycystic ovaries. Gradually to all associated pathologies we get there.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal disorders (endokrinopatologií) women of reproductive, mature age. In our country, the incidence of this syndrome around 5% of women. It is defined as a disease with chronic anovulation (no ovulation chronically) and an excess of male sex hormones, androgens (Greek andros = man).

Excess androgens may also arise from other causes such as tumors due to overproduction of androgens, congenital adrenal enlargement, increased amounts of the hormone prolactin, thyroid malfunction or due to Cushing’s syndrome. All of these other causes must be ruled out to confirm the diagnosis.

Its exact origin but not yet known. Its development involved the interplay of several factors.There are several theories regarding the origin syndrome described here, unfortunately, each theory has its weak points, because it is not applicable to every woman who suffers from this disease. In short there are various theories discussed.

Hormonal causes of infertility

If the problem will first focus of pages hormone, it happens that the pituitary is more stimulated, and begins to release a greater amount of the hormone, which is called luteinizing. Luteinizing hormone is normally present in the female body, is involved in the proper operation of the menstrual cycle. It acts on the follicular cells and stimulates it to produce estrogen andprogesterone. His excessive secretion but cause excessive burden on those cells that begin producing male hormones, androgens.

Overproduction of androgens, as already mentioned, leads, inter alia, excessive hair at locations which are not normal for a woman – such face.

It also excludes less hormone that acts on the follicular cells and is called follicle stimulating hormone, FSH. The under physiological conditions, it stimulates follicle, which is a cell container egg, through which the egg ripens and is ready for ovulation. Ovulation begins by cells of the follicle after a sufficient stimulation of this hormone burst, the egg is released, and is sucked into the fallopian tubes where ideally the event has to meet the sperm. If, however, follicle stimulating hormone little follicle and ovum eat and not become ripe, ovum from the follicle disengages and no ovulation.

Resistant causes of infertility

Another theory is the resistance (resistance, indifference) of the organism against hormone called insulin. It is a hormone produced in the pancreas cells, released, especially after meals, and facilitates transmission of molecules of glucose (sugar) into cells. Resistance means that the cells do not respond to insulin and glucose, which is one of the basic nutrients of cells, not not let into the cell interior.

This resistance is related to the blocking input of follicle stimulating hormone in follicular cells and the related loss of ovulation.


Risk factors for ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are a disease that is difficult to classify, as has already been mentioned several times, its origin is unclear. If we start from the theory of resistance (resistance) the body to insulin, then this part of the metabolic syndrome X.

Metabolic syndrome is a combination of obesity, high levels of fats (lipids) in the blood plasma, and high blood pressure (hypertension). It is speculated that, polycystic ovaries, and Metabolic Syndrome X diseases are very closely related, if not identical. In this case, as a clear risk factor can appoint a poor lifestyle – poor diet composition, minimal movement, excessive intake of calories.


Prevention of ovarian cysts

Complete change of lifestyle. Do daily regimen include movement – not just dash off weekly aerobics, is meant daily exercise – walking, cycling, swimming, whatever you like and whatever you allow your available time.

A next logical step change of diet – reduce an excessive amount of calories from fat select those which are beneficial to the organism and sugars minimized.


Signs and symptoms of ovarian cysts

Most women who have a proven polycystic ovary syndrome, an irregular menstrual cycle,menstruating very little (i.e., the menstrual blood losses are much smaller than it used standard) or lose totally menstruation (loss of menstruation is called amenorrhea).

Because there is a hormonal disruption, particularly to the reduced amount of follicle-stimulating hormone, which is designed to stimulate follicles (egg is stored in a container of cells, the entire department called the follicle. The follicle egg protects and thanks to this protection may egg to mature) to there were proper ovulation. Since the amount of this hormone is reduced, follicles, and of course also the egg are sufficiently stimulated to ripening ceases woman this reason ovulate.

Women with this disease have a further increased risk of abortion, especially in the early stages of pregnancy. Is expressed with them a higher risk of pathological course of pregnancy(preeclampsia eklamp¬sie and gestational diabetes mellitus) and obstetric complications, but it may be related to obesity often present, which in some works shows a stronger risk factor for the above-mentioned complications.

Obesity is an accompanying phenomenon in 20-80% of cases. Obesity as such is accompanied by an increased incidence of gynecological disorders (disorders of the menstrual cycle, sterility, higher ri¬ziko obstetric complications, eclampsia and gestational diabetes). It is because of the fact that obese women have a large amount of estrogen in connection with the presence of large amounts of adipose tissue. Those listed cause complications.

For cutaneous manifestations is common acne that does not disappear after puberty around 20th year of life, but are met with also in the third and fourth decade, hirsutism (excessive hair, especially in locations where the occurrence of typical hair for men and especially chest, face (beard), and so forth). Furthermore, in connection with an excess of male hormones present in hair loss also typical for men – high enclosures, hair loss on the scalp.

Certain correlation with cystic ovaries has the incidence of endometrial cancer of the uterus(endometrium is the inner cell lining of the uterus). This relationship is taken as a relative but because women who often have polycystic ovaries are present more other risk factors such as hormonal disruption or as obesity.


Treatment of ovarian cysts

At present there is no therapy that she could directly treat the disease itself. Treats only the symptoms. First choice is hormonal contraceptives, despite all its adverse effects. If the patient only menstrual cycles in the absence of ovulation, served in the second part of the cycle hormonesgestagens gestagen hormones are based on progesterone, which is a natural organism, because it arises from the cells of the corpus luteum. Corpus luteum arises precisely from the cells ruptured follicle after the release of an egg.

Important are the regime measures. Obesity causes quite major disruption to the body and has been shown that significant weight reduction (by about 5-10%) may cause a variety of adverse effects removed. Specifically, after weight reduction can restore ovulation cycles, thus relieves infertility. Furthermore, it is improving lipid metabolism, reducing their amounts in the blood, reducing the resistance to insulin organs.


How can I help myself

This kind of disease is in most cases associated with obesity. Weight reduction very significantly can affect the overall therapy. Reduction mode is definitely in place, but more important is physical activity, which has a much greater impact for the restoration of normal values, for example, blood fats and insulin function than the actual weight reduction.

In the event that a woman is very overweight, a BMI (body mass index = ratio of weight to height in meters squared) greater than 35 and very reductive mode only leads to constant yo-yo effects when the final is also possible weight gain is recommended surgery. Namely gastric banding, in which the patient’s good discipline can solve weight problems and the related problems.


Complications of ovarian cysts

In mild forms of this syndrome may have affected women no menstrual disorder and may ovulate normally. Spontaneous pregnancy is usually just fail and they are also at greater risk ofmiscarriage.

In moderate forms are menstrual irregularities such as shortened menstruation, milder or worse, completely absent menstruation. There are ovulation disorders, or pregnancy can become very problematic.

The most severe form is characterized by obesity, excessive body hair (hirsutism), the complete absence of menstruation (amenorrhea), and the most feared complication is infertility.

Other names: ovarian cysts, polycystic ovary syndrome, Stein-Leventhal syndrome

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