Description of kidney inflammation

Pyelonephritis is an infectious inflammatory kidney disease,usually of bacterial origin (literally is an inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney).

It may occur as an acute (a rapid onset, progress with significant symptoms) or chronic (long-lasting, with prolonged, less specific symptoms or no symptoms). The disease occurs most frequently so that the infection ascends to the kidney in the urinary tract.

In case of insufficient or no treatment can lead to kidney failure.Pyelonephritis is one of the main causes of chronic renal insufficiency (renal insufficiency) which results in impairment of both kidneys to the need for renal replacement therapy by dialysis.


Causes of kidney inflammation

The kidneys in the body, especially for blood purification of combustion gases and metabolites, so that the blood leaving only what he has. Forming in them Urine these exhausts wander into the renal pelvis and from it to the ureters. Ureter carries urine to the bladder, where it is on the collection and from where it is then discharged from urethra from the body.

Disease usually arises only so, but rather on the basis of the presence of a risk factor. Most often it is infection bullish, which will climb bacteria from the bladder through the urethra or the urethra to the kidneys (ascending spread of infection). To do have certain risk factors mentioned below.

In some less frequent cases, it may happen that the infection into the kidney receives blood. In those cases pyelonephritis complication of the underlying disease, such as e.g. purulent inflammation of a joint or of bacterial endocarditis. Infection is then distributes blood throughout the body and may be fastened just needed in the kidney (hematogenous spread of infection).


Risk factors for kidney inflammation

Risk factors include in particular the deterioration (disabling) the outflow of urine that occurs in these cases.

It is the presence of urinary stones in course of urinary tract (urolithiasa) which may preventing normal urine flow, necessary for the refining of the urinary tract by bacteria.

May also be an obstacle in the outlet cancers, prostate, bladder, gynecologic tumors or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Greater risk are further exposed women. In them there is an increased risk of infection due to their anatomy urinary tract. Women have a short urethra, making it easier for bacteria to get into the upper sections of the urinary tract.

Furthermore, due to the fact that the mouth of the urethra in women is in close proximity to the vagina and anus, which are commonly populated by bacteria.

Separate chapter pregnancies in which these risk factors sometimes added difficult emptying the bladder, which occurs because of the pressure of the fetus on the bladder to urine stasis.

Another factor increasing the risk of a so-called. Vesicoureteral reflux. Normally when the ureters into the bladder outlet closed and open only in the case when they flow toward the urine bladder. In people with vesicoureteral reflux happens that a certain portion of urine, which is present in the bladder is sometimes returned to the ureters. This disorder occurs more often in children who are suffering from recurrent inflammation of the kidneys. It can occur but also in adulthood.

At increased risk are people who have paralysis of the lower body. First, they lack sensitivity, do not perceive any signs of inflammation of the urinary tract, in which then can develop pyelonephritis and also have disorders of bladder emptying when there is a prolonged stasis of urine in the bladder.

A risk factor is further weakened immunity, what is in people with HIV, cancer patients, people suffering from diabetes (diabetes mellitus) or in patients on immunosuppressive therapy (after transplants, people, people suffering from autoimmune disease).

This includes long-term catheter, which is necessary for some bedridden patients in hospitals.

Z-risk disease that threatens pyelonephritis formation are primarily aforementioned infective endocarditis and suppurative arthritis.

And of course a risk factor of lower urinary tract infections.


Preventing kidney inflammation

The preventive measures are mainly regular fluid intake, because that there is a regular urination and thus cleansing the urinary tract. For women, it is recommended to walk to the toilet as soon as possible after intercourse, which can cause clogging bacteria into the urethra.

Furthermore, the beneficial effect of cranberry juice, which to a certain extent in the urinary tract inflammation. Drink It should not be the only people taking warfarin medication (drugs to reduce blood clotting), since due to interactions with warfarin increases susceptibility to bleeding.

Personal hygiene of intimate areas should be particularly for women, regular and honest.

In the prevention of urinary tract in general to avoid hypothermia (back in the warmth, not to sit on the cold pad) and in case of difficulties in urinating (painful urination accompanied by burning, cutting), consult a doctor in order to be any infection immediately zaléčena.

Other preventive measures are good to strengthen the immune system, thus receiving enough vitamins (fruits, vegetables), regular rest and sleep and indulge your body with adequate exercise enough.

Particularly great emphasis on prevention (but also therapy) should be put in people suffering from diabetes in whom pyelonephritis are relatively common diseases.


Signs and symptoms of kidney inflammation

Symptoms occur either on the urinary tract and also outside them, according to its severity.

Of the following symptoms may occur some, but also all at once. This is especially the frequent urination and expressive, sometimes persistent urge to urinate, even during night sleep(nocturia).

When urination occurs pain character cutting or burning and urine tends to have a cloudyappearance, often malodorous. The urine may also occur directly pus and blood is not uncommon.Sometimes it also leads to the inability to urinate at all the effort.

These symptoms, indicating that a urinary tract are added others that might not be as specific, but include diseases and confirmed diagnosis.
He is feeling pain or pressure in the abdomen and in the lower back, fever.
For more severe disability temperature rises to a fever (temperature above 38˚C), a shivering andtotal schvácenost. To this may be added vomiting and confusion.

Children may be unrecognized, pyelonephritis one cause of bedwetting. Especially warning is that in cases where the child in the night already nepomočuje normally and suddenly starts again.

In chronic forms are difficulties nonspecific symptoms may prevail “flu-like”, but the exception is not entirely asymptomatic. In these patients, if affected pyelonephritis both kidneys, high risk ofchronic renal failure, often ending unfortunately loss of kidney function with the necessity of compensation of renal function by dialysis.

Then it may take up symptoms, which is responsible for chronic renal failure. In that case, you may experience high blood pressure, anemia (anemia), osteoporosis and often with persistentitching.

In severe untreated failure occurs so. Uremic syndrome, due to insufficient blood clearance of urea. It reflects the significant loss of weight, frequent urge to vomit up vomiting and sometimes bloody diarrhea.

Furthermore, there are recurrent infections due to reduced immunity and a tendency to bleed.
People with chronic pyelonephritis may also have recurrent episodes of acute pyelonephritis.


Treatment of kidney inflammation

If uncomplicated course, they are in the first place in the treatment of pyelonephritis antibiotic.Also, drugs are used to mitigate the accompanying difficulties, particularly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (anti-inflammatory drugs). It is recommended fluid intake.

In more severe cases and cases of repeated infections often require hospitalization, when antibiotics are administered intravenously and there are many other tests that are designed to identify the cause of the disease.

If the cause of recurring infection or urolithiasis detected vesicoureteral reflux, addressing the causes at the urology department. In urolithiasis it is necessary to remove the stones, which is done most frequently called. Lithotripsy when stones zapped using ultrasonic waves from outside the body. In the case of vesicoureteral reflux is in place, surgical correction of abnormalities.


Complications of kidney inflammation

If untreated, serious complications of infection is dangerous formation of sepsis at which the whole kidney (or one) affected suppurative inflammation that from here spreads throughout the body.

It can also cause acute renal failure (impaired when both kidneys) to arrest the outflow of urine when the waste products accumulate in the body and poison it, which can have very serious consequences.

In chronic pyelonephritis then when recognized, can lead to chronic renal failure, which leads to progressive loss of renal function and the necessity of the regular dialysed.

Other names: nephritis, pyelonephritis, septic nephritis, pyelonephritis, acute nephritis, chronic nephritis

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