Nausea & Vomitting

What Are Nausea and Vomiting?

Vomiting is an uncontrollable reflex that expels the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is also called “being sick,” or “throwing up.” Nausea is a term that describes the feeling that you might vomit, but are not actually vomiting.

Both nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms and can be caused by a wide range of factors. They occur in both children and adults, although they are probably most common in pregnant women and people undergoing cancer treatments.

What Causes Nausea and Vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting may occur together or separately. They can be caused by a number of physical and psychological conditions.


The most common causes of nausea are intense pain — usually from an injury or illness — and the first trimester of pregnancy. There are also a number of other relatively common causes, including:

  • motion sickness
  • emotional stress
  • indigestion
  • food poisoning
  • viruses
  • exposure to chemical toxins

If you suffer from gallstone disease, you’re also likely to feel nauseated.

You may find that certain smells bring on the feeling of nausea. This is a very common symptom during the first trimester of pregnancy, although it can also occur in people who are not pregnant. Pregnancy-induced nausea usually goes away by the second or third trimester.

Vomiting in Children

The most common causes of vomiting in children are viral infections and food poisoning. However, vomiting can also be caused by:

  • severe motion sickness
  • coughing
  • high fevers
  • overeating

In very young infants, blocked intestines can also cause persistent vomiting. The intestines may become blocked by abnormal muscular thickening, hernia, gallstones, or tumors. This is uncommon, but should be investigated if unexplained vomiting occurs in an infant.

Vomiting in Adults

Most adults rarely vomit. When it does occur, a bacterial or viral infection or a type of food poisoning usually causes vomiting. In some cases, vomiting can also be the result of other illnesses, especially if they lead to a headache or high fever.

Chronic Stomach Conditions

Chronic (long-term) stomach conditions can often cause nausea and vomiting, along with other symptoms, such as diarrhea, constipation, and stomach pain. These chronic conditions include food intolerances, such as gluten intolerance (celiac disease), and dairy protein and lactose intolerance.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common stomach condition that causes bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, fatigue, and cramping. It occurs when parts of the gut becoming overactive. Doctors usually diagnose IBS by identifying symptoms and ruling out other stomach and bowel conditions.

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that commonly affects the intestines, though it can occur anywhere in the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease is an autoimmune condition in which the body attacks its own healthy gut tissue, causing inflammation, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Doctors usually diagnose Crohn’s disease using a colonoscopy, a procedure that uses a small camera to explore the colon. Sometimes they also need a stool sample to help diagnose the condition.

Lifestyle Choices

Certain lifestyle choices can increase your chance of experiencing nausea and vomiting. Consuming a large amount of alcohol can cause damage to the lining of the gut or react with stomach acid. Both of these will cause nausea and vomiting. In some cases, excessive alcohol consumption can also cause bleeding in the digestive tract.

Eating Disorders

An eating disorder is when a person adjusts their eating habits and behaviors based on an abnormal body image. It can cause nausea and vomiting. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person induces vomiting deliberately to purge the stomach of any consumed food. People with anorexia nervosa may also feel nausea due to starvation and excess stomach acid.

Serious Conditions

Though rare, vomiting can sometimes occur as a symptom of a more serious condition, including:

  • meningitis
  • appendicitis
  • concussion
  • a brain tumor
  • migraine headaches

A doctor should always investigate persistent vomiting.

Emergency Care

Seek medical care if you suffer from nausea or vomiting for more than a week. Most cases of vomiting clear up within 6 to 24 hours after the first attack.

Under 6 Years Old

Seek emergency care for any child under 6 years old who:

  • has both vomiting and diarrhea
  • has projectile vomiting
  • is showing symptoms of dehydration wrinkled skin, irritability, a weak pulse, or reduced consciousness
  • has been vomiting for more than two or three hours
  • has a fever of above 100 degrees F
  • has not urinated in more than six hours

Over 6 Years Old

Seek emergency care for children over 6 years old if:

  • vomiting has lasted for more than 24 hours
  • there are symptoms of dehydration
  • the child has not urinated in more than six hours
  • the child appears confused or lethargic
  • the child has a fever higher than 102°F


Seek emergency medical care if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • a severe headache
  • a stiff neck
  • lethargy
  • confusion
  • blood in the vomit
  • a rapid pulse
  • rapid breathing
  • a fever of over 102°F
  • decreased responsiveness
  • severe or persistent abdominal pain

Treating Nausea and Vomiting

You can use a number of methods to relieve nausea and vomiting, including home remedies and medications.

Self-Treatment for Nausea

To treat nausea at home:

  • Consume only light, plain foods, such as bread and crackers.
  • Avoid any foods that have strong flavors, are very sweet, or are greasy or fried.
  • Drink cold liquids.
  • Avoid any activity after eating.
  • Drink a cup of ginger tea.
  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals.

Self-Treatment for Vomiting

  • Drink a large amount of clear fluids to remain hydrated.
  • Avoid solid foods of any kind until vomiting stops.
  • Rest.
  • Avoid using medications that may upset your stomach, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and blood thinners (but clear this with your doctor first).
  • Use an oral rehydrating solution to replace lost electrolytes.

Medical Care

Before prescribing medication, you doctor will ask questions about when the nausea and vomiting began and when it’s at its worst. They may also ask you about your eating habits and whether anything makes the vomiting and nausea better or worse.

A number of prescription medications can control nausea and vomiting, including medications you can use during pregnancy. These include promethazine (Phenergan), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), and trimethobenzamide (Tigan).

Potential Complications of Persistent Vomiting

Most nausea and vomiting will clear up on its own, unless you have an underlying chronic condition. However, persistent vomiting can cause dehydration and malnutrition. You may also find that your hair and nails become weak and brittle, and that constant vomiting decays your tooth enamel.

How Can Nausea and Vomiting Be Prevented?

You can avoid nausea by eating smaller meals throughout the day, eating slowly, and resting after eating. Some people find that avoiding certain food groups and spicy foods prevents nausea.

If you start to feel nauseated, eat plain crackers before getting up and try to consume a high protein food, such as cheese or lean meat, before you go to sleep.

If you’re vomiting, try to drink small amounts of a sugary liquid, such as a soda or fruit juice. Drinking ginger ale or eating ginger can help settle your stomach. Avoid acidic juices, such as orange juice. They may upset your stomach further.

Over-the-counter medications, such as meclizine (Bonine) and dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), can lessen the effects of motion sickness. Limit snacks during car rides and look straight out of a front window if you’re prone to motion sickness.

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