Narcolepsy


Narcolepsy

Description narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is a chronic disease that affects the nervous system, specifically the brain centers control the process of falling asleep and waking up. It is characterized by sudden and uncontrollable sleep attacks, which can attack humans at any time of day and during any activity, eg. During a call, driving or walking. This condition comes without warning, and without the possibility to influence him in any way.

Narcolepsy and reduces the human being as in social and working life and personal life. This disease is not static and has its own specific development, which has a serious impact on people between the ages of 40 35.-. After the fiftieth year of depression may occur difficulties and some problems may disappear with increasing age.

The cause of this disease has not been accurately reported, experts believe that the blame carry the genetic changes and the autoimmune response of the organism.

 

Risk factors for narcolepsy

Risk factors are genetic changes on the sixth chromosome called in. HLA complex. These changes cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter hypocretin and subsequent autoimmune reactions and degeneration of cells which contain this neurotransmitter.

Another danger comes from the patient’s age. It is shown that the most serious and the most noticeable symptoms tend to people of working age in the period between 35.- 40th year of life.After the completion of fifty years, some symptoms of narcolepsy reduce or even disappear.

 

prevention of narcolepsy

Because it was not clear clarified the exact cause of this disease, there is currently no preventive measures.

 

Signs and symptoms of narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is characterized by several overt signs that are beginning to manifest in childhood, puberty and adolescence (usually around fifteenth to twentieth year of life).

It is characterized by seizures so. Imperative (irresistible) sleep, which may appear at any time of day. These seizures come suddenly, without a signal and without its consequences affect.

Another symptom typical narkoleptiky is a condition where there is a loss of muscle tone for a few seconds or even minutes. This condition is called cataplexy. Cataplexy is most often manifested as weakness, causing, for example, undermine foot fall without impairment of consciousness, loss of objects from your hand, drop the jaw, head refutation etc.

These conditions are often caused by strong emotional experiences, such as a hearty laugh, a sense of satisfaction or vice versa anger.

Narcolepsy can cause so. Sleep paralysis, which occurs when the absolute paralysis of the muscles to prevent any movement. Paralysis reaches even the facial muscles so that the person is unable to speak and call for help. This fear and worry even more aggravated. This gridlock occurs in most cases either just before falling asleep or just after waking up and can take several minutes. This condition occurs in one third to half of those affected.

Further, this disease is accompanied by so-called. Hypnagogic hallucinations. This is a very real needs that have video, audio or tactile in nature and which may be accompanied by motion and speeches. These hallucinations are manifested especially during sleep and waking.

Another hallmark of narcolepsy can be called states. Auto-negotiation. The affected person can thus move both comic and serious situations. It often happens that the patient needlessly and unjustifiably moves objects in the apartment, he comes out of the apartment without being aware of where he was going and why he goes.

In some cases, it may unknowingly be up aggressive and violent.

Narkoleptici also often suffer from restless and interrupted night’s sleep, which is accompanied by vivid and bizarre dreams.

Narcolepsy can manifest and gnashing of teeth (ie. Bruxism) sleepwalking (somnambulism),night terrors, etc.

This disease can manifest hyperactivity in small children or conversely partial weakness, which leads to increased daytime sleepiness without signs of seizure. Due to the increased need for sleep children limit their activities to a minimum, worsens their physical condition and the negative impact may be reflected on school results. Children are unreceptive, they can come and feelings of inferiority or vice versa symptoms of irritability and aggression.

The affected person often has a slower reaction than others, it slows down the process of learning and may lead to a reduction in IQ (it does not mean a loss of intellect or ability to think rationally and make decisions).

Psychologists based on various observations personality narkoleptika characterized as mild andunderstated prone to submisivnímu (pliant) behavior. In the company stands rather the party is not giving too much and his behavior is inappropriate under control.

People suffering from narcolepsy often have a tendency to underestimate occur in depressions,feelings of anxiety, loneliness and misunderstanding. It is obvious that all of these states and the patterns formed on the basis of the hassles that come with narcolepsy provides a complicating affected both personal and professional lives.

The exact cause of this disease has not yet been fully explained. Narcolepsy usually appear spontaneously without any reason. Experts vyzkoumali that the culprit can be a genetic factor, also known as the HLA complex, which occurs on the sixth chromosome.

This factor is only available for this kind of disease, it means that narcolepsy throughout life may occur, but this is not always the rule. Individuals that have this HLA complex active, lack neurotransmitter (a chemical that serves to transfer momentum between neurons and which operates in particular in areas where parts of neurons in contact in the so-called. Synapses) hypocretin. This low level hypocretin causes autoimmune reactions and degeneration of nerve cells containing hypocretin. These cells are found in the hypothalamus of the brain, which is the control center of the vegetative functions of the organism.

In some cases, narcolepsy also occur secondarily. For example, due to mechanical brain injury, tumor formation, inflammation, or due to the influence of certain congenital metabolic diseases.

 

treatment of narcolepsy

Before starting the actual treatment disabled person must be subjected to so-called. Monitoring bioelectric brain performance, in order to confirm the diagnosis of narcolepsy. This examination is done in specialized sleep laboratories. This method is not particularly unpleasant. It takes about one day.

Examination begins in the evening, when the patient is connected to the monitoring device and which are attached to the body various electrodes and probes which detect all kinds of signals of the organism. About 22 hours, the patient is asked to sleep, which is monitored roughly by 7 o’clock in the morning, when the patient wakes up. Then one is disconnected from monitoring equipment (electrodes and probes but remain in place) and they are given two hours off, when he may pursue any action.

After this period comes a series of half-hour sleep examination between which is always a two-hour pause in which the patient tries to keep awake. Throughout the investigation ends around the 17th hour in the afternoon. During the day, as will be five independent measurements. If during these stretches of sleep and fall asleep interstitial breaks three or more times likely to suffer from narcolepsy and the examiner to invite you to the consultation, which will explain the nature of the disease and subsequent treatment.

Since the cause of this disease have not yet been precisely defined, the treatment is not foolproof.Experts are not able to completely cure the disease, but in their capacity to mitigate the effects of narcolepsy and positively affect patient quality of life.

Treatment is started called. And lifestyle changes after diagnosis was transferred to the medical management. The treatment is in most cases used psychostimulants, which prevent falling asleep during the day and antidepressants which have sedative effects facilitating night sleep.

 

How can I help myself

The location is the question, how can the patient help of his surroundings. It is imperative that the surrounding society took note of this disease and to underestimate him. People must seek the victim and his problems to understand and help him. Only the full support of neighborhood life can with this disease, at least partially relieve

 

complications narcolepsy

The biggest complications that come with narcolepsy carries an increased need for sleep and theurge to sleep during the day. This has an impact on personal and professional life, for example when there is a deterioration in academic performance, low work performance, limiting the choice of profession, inability to assert themselves in society and to satiate their fulfillment.

A person suffering from narcolepsy, for example, can not possess a driving license, during a bout of sleep can be dangerously hurt, and the impact this disease can have on partner life.

Up to forty percent of people in the productive age must go because of narcolepsy symptoms inpartial or full disability pension.

Other names: mandatory sleepiness, dyssomnia

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