Mesothelioma


Mesothelioma

Description mesothelioma

It is very rare primary tumor of the pleura (the pleura), but rarely may arise from cells of the peritoneum (peritoneum) or the pericardium (pericardium). Development of this type of cancer is strongly linked to asbestos. In most cases it is the patients who came repeatedly into contact with asbestos fibers. Research has found that mesothelioma ill and family members of workers who brought asbestos fibers home on their clothes to wash. Between asbestos exposure and disease often elapse decades. As we mentioned, especially mesothelioma tumor of the pleura (pleura).The pleura is the membrane that covers the surface of the lungs and lining the pleural cavity.

Mesothelioma can generally be divided into benign(noncancerous) and malignant (cancerous). Benign type is not related to exposure to asbestos, and it is only a thickening of the pleura, which very often has no symptoms. Therefore, I will continue to describe only the malignant form. For the tumor is a typical local growth. As time grows chest cavity and interferes with the surrounding organs (lungs, heart, diaphragm), but even in the late stages has a tendency to metastasize. Metastases are both subsidiaries of tumors arising in the lymph nodes or other organs seeding tumor cells from cancer earlier deposits.

Mesothelioma Risk Factors

Essential risk factor is contact with the asbestos fibers. There are two basic types of asbestos fibers. The first type is chrysotile. This is a soft spiral thread that attaches more frequently in the upper airways. On the other hand, amphibole, which are solid asbestos needles that get into the alveoli, or to the pleura. This type of fiber is much more dangerous and causes most mesothelioma.Research has found that mesothelioma ill and family members of workers who come into contact with asbestos, for example, when washing work clothes.

Reason tumor formation is as follows. Inhaled asbestos fiber gets into the alveoli it there devour macrophage (the cell of the immune system, which removes foreign particles). He, however, it is not able to destroy and over time the thread gets out of the cell and “pierced” pleura and gets into the chest cavity, where further harmful and irritating. Gradual irritation arises chronic inflammation, on the basis of which may rise to tumor growth.

mesothelioma prevention

Prevention is essential to avoid contact with asbestos fibers. Zero contact with asbestos is not yet possible because asbestos is widespread in industry and was recently used as a nonflammable building materials, so its presence in our area do not even know. Fortunately, the risk of this cancer is very small.

Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma

Symptoms begin to appear about 20 to 50 years after exposure to asbestos. The basic symptoms include dry cough, shortness of breath and chest pain that varies with breathing. Furthermore, the patient loses weight, loses appetite, may have an elevated temperature. Often fluid present in the thoracic cavity (fluidothorax) and pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs). Patients may cough up blood (hemoptysis), and may suffer from anemia (anemia) and severe night sweats. If mesothelioma rarely present in the abdominal cavity, the patient experiences stomach pain, intestinal problems can be and very often occurs the fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites).

diagnosis of mesothelioma

Very important is the medical history of the patient, which can detect exposure to risk factors.Physical examination will reveal abnormal sounds during breathing, a dry cough and sometimes vague changes in the lung and pleura. Another examination is commonly chest X-ray. On suspicion, the investigative scheme extends a CT (computed tomography) or MRI. If fluid is present in the thoracic cavity (fluidothorax) can remove the specimen and sent for histological examination. In thoracic fluid may in fact be present tumor cells. If this test is negative, accesses to taking a sample from the tumor itself (tumor biopsy). Biopsies were performed using thoracoscopic surgery.The surgeon makes a small incision in the chest wall and the thoracoscope is introduced between the ribs, which is a narrow lighted instrument through which the surgeon finds and removes the tumor sample. If the tumor is in the abdomen, diagnosis is very similar to that carried out with X-ray, CT and MRI of the abdomen. The sampling is used laparoscope. In the future it will probably also use PET scan (positron emission tomography).

During the diagnosis is very important to detect the tumor, but also determine its spread (staging).They are different classifications, the most advanced is Brighamův system. The first stage is surgically removed without lymph node involvement. In the second stage already lymph node. Stage three involves surgically unresectable tumor that has spread to the chest wall, heart, diaphragm, lymph nodes or outside the chest. The fourth stage involves distant metastases or distant tumor ingrowth. By staging is then chosen therapy.

treatment of mesothelioma

Conventional therapy comprises a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation(radiotherapy = actinotherapy). The specific treatment depends on the stage of the disease and condition of the patient. During surgery to remove the tumor and the adjacent portion of healthy tissue. If possible complete removal, the patient has a chance for a complete cure. Unfortunately, it has often not possible.

After surgery, often followed by radiation or chemotherapy or a combination thereof which is designed to destroy residual tumor cells. The actual irradiation but has too much effect, so it is used after surgery or combined with chemotherapy.

If no longer possible to operate, a patient is offered chemotherapy, which is effective even alone.Used various combinations of chemotherapy. Unfortunately, they are often present many adverse effects of this treatment. Rather like the experimental currently uses immunological therapy using interleukins and interferons.

Despite intensive and very expensive treatment is not the result optimistic. About 75 percent of patients in the first or second stage of the disease survive five years after the discovery of cancer.But if a higher stage, patients live for an average of one year after diagnosis. Very however, depend on the particular patient.

How can I help treat?

Cancer diseases are so serious that they must be treated by a medical team. It is important tofollow the advice and recommendations of the physician. The foundation is to support families.

complications mesothelioma

The most common complication is mesothelioma effusions in the chest cavity and oppression lung tissue. The results are difficulty breathing and a worsening of the patient’s condition. Later may also occur to the oppression of the heart and thoracic vessels and related circulatory problems.

Other names: mesothelioma, mesothelioma, cancer of the pleura, peritoneum tumor, cancer of the peritoneum, the pericardium tumor, tumor serous

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