Meningitis


Meningitis

Description of meningitis

Our brain and spinal cord are coated with three layers. These layers, together with the cerebrospinal fluid that fills the space between the packaging protects the brain and spinal cord against shocks and other outside influences. The innermost casing which sealingly urges the brain and spinal cord is called soft mater.And it is this layer is damaged during meningitis.

In humans infected with meningitis occurs swelling soft mater, which reduces the supply of sugar and oxygen to the brain.Meningitis or meningitis is a very serious infectious disease that can cause many permanent effects (blindness, deafness or epilepsy) and ending even death.

Nowadays we can get vaccinated vaccines against meningitis A and C, which reliably protects us. Effective vaccine against meningitis B, however, has not been developed.

 

Risk factors for meningitis

Most often meningitis in human body induced either viruses orbacteria.

Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any human being dangerous bacteria that gets into the blood of the meninges. It is interesting that the most common cause of bacterial meningitis include bacteria that are part of the normal flora of the human nose or mouth.

Normally, these bacteria causing non-binding respiratory infection. Unless, of course, but we have a weakened immune system, microbes can enter the bloodstream and reach as far as paperback brain, where it causes inflammation. Man has a greater risk of infection with meningitis when his body weakened such as after an accident or illness, is weakened by extensive physical exertion or stress. Also at risk are young children who have not yet fully developed defense system, as well as people with weakened immune systems and teenagers who live an unhealthy lifestyle (awake at night, smoking, irregular eating and have a great mental and physical strain).

Bacterial meningitis is very insidious because it penetrates quickly into the bloodstream and therefore can even result in death. Meningitis caused by viruses are milder – následky- not fatal but can cause permanent damage to the nerves and cause paralysis. The virus that causes meningitis as the herpes virus.

 

Prevention of meningitis

The most effective protection against meningitis A and C is vaccination. The vaccination is worthwhile because it will protect you for several years. The vaccine will come at five hundred to nine hundred crowns, but some insurance companies contribute significantly to it (NGA contributes even five hundred dollars).

Meningitis vaccination is especially recommended for young people because they are at greatest risk of illness from this disease. Also before the bacteria that causes bacterial meningitis(Hemophilem influenzae) can be vaccinated. Since 2001 in the Czech Republic include a vaccine against this bacterium among the standard. Unfortunately, effective vaccine against meningitis C has not been developed.

Since meningitis infection may also save a healthy lifestyle. Because of weakened immunity gives the microbe causing the illness opportunity to penetrate the brain blanám and cause inflammation, to prevent meningitis, it is also important to maintain a good supply of vitamins, have good eating habits, indulging in regular exercise outdoors, regular sleep and avoid stressful situations.

The risk of infection may also increase smoking, even passive smoking. In a nationwide study showed that children under fifteen years of age who have one parent is a smoker, have a three times higher chance of getting meningitis than children from non-smoking families. If both parents are smokers, the risk is even eight times.

If you have been in contact with a person affected by meningitis, it is advisable precaution taken after a few days of antibiotic.

 

Signs and symptoms of meningitis

Meningitis is a very serious illness in the sense that a healthy person could endanger the life of a few hours.

Early stage of meningitis can be difficult to diagnose because it is very similar to the common cold (such as flu) – we have a fever and a big headache.

Additionally, however, the disease develops specifically: solidification of the neck muscles (not to bow his head to his chest). It also appears nausea and vomiting. Furthermore, we are sensitive to light (which is caused by irritation of the optic nerve), tired and confused, and you can also appear on the face of widespread haze.

As the bacteria spread through the bloodstream throughout the body, symptoms can be seen almost throughout the body. We therefore able to see the rash, for example in the form of small blue spots on the skin, cramps and muscle pain throughout the body and can even fall into a coma.

Small children are not as pronounced symptoms of meningitis and can be in different children vary greatly. For example, they are very sick children sleeping, or on the other side are very restless and crying for no reason. The disease in children is further developed such that, after one to three days will bulge sites on their header where not yet grown together and the bone may occur, convulsions or vomiting. Infants with meningitis also manifested cold feet and hands, and refusing to drink.

 

Treatment of meningitis

It is necessary that the meningitis treatment was started as soon as possible after its outbreak.Timely find a doctor because can dramatically improve a patient’s prognosis and save his life.

A standard examination to confirm meningitis is a test of freedom of mobility of the patient’s neck and lumbar puncture. Lumbar puncture, the doctor removes cerebrospinal fluid from the area around the fourth and fifth vertebrae. If the fluid is clear, the patient is likely to be healthy.However, if the collected cerebrospinal fluid hazy, apparently suffering patient purulent meningitis. For completeness examination of the sample sent to the laboratory of the institute.

Immediately after the diagnosis is necessary to begin treatment. In this disease, the minute time and may save a life. Because the patient is vulnerable to meningitis mainly due to swelling of the brain, gets medication against swelling.

Another important drugs are antibiotics that kill large spectrum of bacteria and have the ability to penetrate well into the brain. Antibiotics can be administered orally or intravenously.

It is also necessary that the patient has a sufficient supply of water and minerals. During treatment, after about 48 hours repeatedly makes lumbar puncture and examines the contents of cerebrospinal fluid. .

A patient with meningitis, which is life-threatening, lying in intensive care, so doctors could check his vitals. When successful treatment subsides main symptoms about four days. However, at least two weeks must continue with antibiotics to prevent the disease again returned.

 

How can I help myself

Since meningitis is a very serious infectious disease that can result to death, alone at home can all talk too much. Most importantly, as soon as you contact your doctor, who we diagnose and start treatment.

Yet there are a few tips on how to handle yourself before consulting your doctor: If you suspect that you are ill (and) meningitis, you can first try to have a movable neck.

If you have a problem without pain, put her head on his chest, and you’re carrying discovered symptoms of the disease mentioned above, is a very high probability that you have meningitis.Therefore, promptly contact your doctor. If you head on my chest without problems it does not necessarily mean that you suffer from inflammation of the membranes. If you have the slightest concern or suspicion, go immediately to the doctor.

Remember that in this disease in terms of minutes. Also think about whether you have recently suffered from inflammation of the ear, respiratory infections and had a head injury. These are the factors that increase the chance of meningitis. Remember this important information to be reported immediately to your doctor.

 

Complications of meningitis

The most serious complication is obviously death. The behavior occurs in 5-10 percent of the disease, usually within one to two days after the onset of illness.

Another complication that occurs in this disease, it is also, for example damage to cranial nerves.The most common is impaired auditory nerve which is typically irreversible and leads to completedeafness patient. Rarer is the damage to the optic nerve that can lead to irreversible damage.Another type of complication, but no less serious, is an inflammation of the heart muscle.

On the body, where it formed during the illness minor bruises (rash) may occur at the time callednecrosis – dead tissue, which later throw it.

Children may have to experience a meningitis may also result in behavior disorder, epilepsy or slightly delayed development.

Other names: meningitis, meningitis, pneumonia, meningitis, inflammation of the meninges, meningococcal meningitis, meningitis type A, type C meningitis, meningitis A, meningitis C

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