Meniere’s disease


Meniere’s disease

Description of Meniere’s disease

Meniere’s disease is a disease of hearing and equilibrium organ (statoakustický), namely a part which is positioned in the inner ear.

This disease affects men and women equally, most commonly between the 20th-50th year. Usually affects only one ear, a small proportion of patients may be affected in both ears.

It was first described role in 1861 by French physician Prosper Meniere – hence its name. Although it has been known for over 140 years, its cause is still not clearly understood.

To understand the nature manifestations of Meniere’s disease, it is necessary to mention briefly the structure and function of the inner ear.

The inner ear consists of two labyrinths – bone (it is actually a complex of small voids in the inside of the temporal bone, ie the hardest part – otocranium) and membranous that is located in the bony labyrinth, and consists of a set of cavities lined with epithelium. Membranous labyrinth consists of the cochlea (which mediates auditory sensations), semicircular canals and two pouches spherical shape – saccule and utrikulus (home to the structures for the perception of balance and head position in space).

Membranous labyrinth is filled with liquid specific volume and concentration of ions, calledendolymph. That volume change (ie. Endolymfatický hydrops) and the ion concentration of the fluid to explain the symptoms of Meniere’s disease. One theory says that when pressure rise ednolymfy to rupture blanitého labyrinth and endolymph rich in potassium pours into space bony labyrinth and cause a malfunction of nerve cells, resulting in classic symptoms of Meniere’s disease – humming in the ears (tinnitus) deterioration of hearing (hypacusis) and dizziness (vertigo).

Endolymfatický hydrops may be caused partly by other specific diseases of the inner ear, e.g. prolonged recurrent infections labyrinth caused by viruses, bacteria or spirochetes, congenital anomalies labyrinth. Another cause may be necessary to fracture the rock bones. However, in these cases, the disease known cause, and therefore not talking about Meniere’s disease, Meniere’s syndrome but (has the same symptoms as Meniere’s disease, but the cause of this disease is known).

There are many diseases that have the same symptoms as Meniere’s disease. There is a need for them before determining the final diagnosis of the patient and to think properly investigated. This is primarily a disease of the brain stem, cranial nerves, poor blood supply to the brain stem auditory nerve tumors, and others. If no cause is found, but the disease symptoms are present, it is known as hydrops endolymfatický idiopathic (without apparent cause) and disease Meniere’s disease.

Risk factors for Meniere’s Disease

If you have developed symptoms of Meniere’s disease and the diagnosis will have been medically confirmed, it is good to follow certain principles lifestyle to reduce and mitigate the incidence of seizures. Treat yourself to a sufficient amount of sleep (ie. At least 8 hours a day), avoid stressful situations, limit your salt intake, drink less coffee, try not to drink alcoholic beverages. Stop smoking.

Prevention Meniere’s disease

Given that the actual cause of the disease is unclear, it is difficult to say what should be avoided in order to prevent its formation. For the more advanced the disease, the recommendations coincide with those mentioned above.

Symptoms of Meniere’s disease

The disease manifests itself occurrence of acute attacks of vertigo with a strong and very unpleasant dizziness (rotational dizziness), which usually accompanies the sensation of pressure or fullness of the ear, loss of hearing and sound sensations such as ringing, knocking, whistling, rustling, buzzing, squeaking, hissing, pounding, etc. . (collectively called tinnitus). Often himself fit dizziness precedes called. Aura – a sensation of pressure in the ear, hearing loss, which over the seizure gaining in intensity.

Vertigo is usually so violent that a victim has trouble with balance, he is unable to stand or walk.Due to the strong feeling of dizziness may be triggered nausea, vomiting (nausea) and vomiting (vomiting).

Bout after a certain time (minutes to hours) subsides. Initially, the seizures do not present any difficulties, they might then feel dizzy and between seizures persist for several days. As the disease begins to emerge permanently present tinnitus, hearing loss (hypacusis), especially in the bass.After prolonged repeated attacks can even occur with some potižených to a complete loss of hearing.

Diagnosis of Meniere’s disease

The diagnosis of Meniere’s disease is determined based on the description of the difficulties that gives sick, and the results of a series of tests designed to rule out other serious cause of the presence of the above mentioned symptoms.

When suspicion of Meniere’s disease, first accesses audiometrickému test that proves temporary hearing impairment in deep tones.
Further tests are used to display the inner ear and skull ever – X-ray, CT, MRI, angiography.

Treatment of Meniere’s Disease

As already mentioned in the introduction, the cause of Meniere’s disease is not yet known, it is not possible to treat this disease is called. Causally (treat the cause of the disease).

Treatment therefore consists in reducing the symptoms during an attack. Administered drugs from the group antivertigo – anti-vertigo and anti-emetics – against vomiting. If vomiting occurs, it is suitable to use as a suppository. The aim of this treatment is to reduce the frequency of seizures, and thereby preserve hearing.

To alleviate the discomfort during a seizure can be given sedatives, trenkvilizéry

If the treatment is ineffective, can in some cases proceed to operation (sakotomie, neurektomie) which can eliminate dizziness.

Despite intensive research has discovered a process that would lead to a cure for Meniere’s disease.

An important part of treatment is psychotherapy.

How to help treat Meniere’s disease

When a seizure Meniere’s disease would have affected people should immediately lie down and remain in complete tranquility. They should immediately take their medication against nausea and dizziness and therefore also carry in your pocket.

Lifestyle changes that should be followed by every diagnosed with Meniere’s disease, was mentioned in the risk factors.

Complications of Meniere’s disease

Recurring bouts of Meniere’s disease, which impairs the quality of both conventional and professional life, stressing the sick and expose anxieties that may have an impact on their psychological state.

Another factor that significantly adversely affects the psyche of the patient, the incurability of the disease.

It is imperative to have all these aspects in mind and psychotherapy from the outset to include comprehensive treatment of Meniere’s disease and thus prevent possible unfortunate consequences that so large a claim on the psyche, which is undoubtedly Meniere’s disease can have.

Other names: Meniere’s syndrome, endolymfatický hydrops, morbus M

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