Melanoma


Melanoma

Description melanoma

Melonom is a very dangerous type of skin cancer that arises inmelanocytes ie skin cells that produce skin pigment.

Melanoma is caused by the sun, ie primarily the UVB component that damage DNA, and the melanocytes was then proliferate uncontrollably and form a skin nádor- melanoma. Melanoma occurs most commonly on the skin, but may also be created in the mucosa or in the eye.

Most typically occur on areas of the body that sun exposure fitfully. May arise as normally white skin and on the basis of melanoma. Melanoma is a very dangerous skin tumor, but because it is on the surface of the skin and the color, we can easily identify and initiate timely treatment.

Due to the improved financial situation and the development of tourism and more people from Central Europe affected by melanoma. For example, statistics say that in the Czech Republic, the incidence melonomu the last thirty years has increased four times. Men and women are affected equally.

 

Risk factors for melanoma

Melanoma is primarily a way excessive and unprotected exposure to the sun. The emergence of this disease gives a particularly sunbathing between 10 am and 15 pm, and insufficient use of creams with UV filters or use creams with too low filters.

It is reported, however, also said that neither the use of sufficient appropriate sunscreen product in our long tanning does not protect against melanoma. Sunscreens is only artificially prolong the time you can spend in the sun without being able to be burned. But it does not completely negative effects of ultraviolet radiation on the pigment cells.

Generally are more prone to melanoma, people with lighter skin and blond or red hair (skin phototype phototype I and II) as well as people with multiple birthmarks.

More prone to this type of skin cancer are also people who in childhood or youth, or extensivelyoften burned in the sun. This is a very critical factor, because it is proven that more than chronic tanning is dangerous for the formation melonomu burning when the skin is most sensitive – in the first about 18 years of life.

Greater risk of developing melanoma, people, where someone in the family suffered from this skin cancer. And also those in which melanoma appeared in the past. They have up to ten times greater chance again to get melanoma than those who still suffer from it. Sometimes the melanoma participates weakened immune system.

 

Preventing melanoma

Melanoma is a very dangerous tumor, and therefore the best defense against it is prevention.Perhaps the most important preventive measure is for parents to adequately protect their children from the sun. Small children should not expose children to sunlight and in cases where it is unavoidable, it is necessary to protect a hat, clothing and cream with a high SPF.

For adults and children is true, that they should not ever expose to sunlight between 10 and 15.hodinou, it is the time when the earth’s surface falls most UVB rays that cause melanoma. At this time, it is appropriate to move the shade of trees, parasol or inside buildings.

Protection against the sun’s harmful rays and give us the appropriate clothing and headgear. It is available even wear special protective filters which are impermeable to UV radiation. On the part of the body, are not covered by clothing, it is necessary to apply a sunscreen with a protective UV filter. It is noted that even the mere daily browsing city should be creamed with a factor of at least the 15th protection factor indicates how much ultraviolet radiation reaches the skin after use. For example, a factor of 20 released into our skin only one-twentieth of sunlight, a factor of 50, then release only one-fiftieth rays etc.

When melanoma prevention, however, is not only important value protection factor, but also themethod of application of the protective cream. It is generally known that the composition should be applied at least twenty minutes before going to the sun. Furthermore, we should apply a sufficient extent and on dry and clean skin in order to properly absorb. If exposure to the sun alternate residing in water, it is necessary to use creams that are water resistant (water-resistant or water-proof), as well as the water passes through a considerable amount of UV rays. After you get out of the water it is necessary protective cream for dry skin apply again. And even if not buy, so it is suitable layer of cream about every two to three hours to restore because sweating and wiping the skin of our cream gradually washes.

While it is known that using sunlight our body produces vitamin D, which the body is necessary and that the sun’s rays have a beneficial effect on the human psyche, so it does not mean that we should because they lie hours in the sun and risk skin cancer . The human body is able to create a vitamin D despite a small skin surface in a very short period of time. It should also be noted that even artificial radiation for our skin very dangerous (according to some sources are even more dangerous). Therefore, we should avoid soláriím or other similar radiation.

 

Signs and symptoms of melanoma

Melanoma can my various forms. It may be spread either on the surface or slightly high. If it starts to form the original healthy skin manifests itself initially as a colored spot, which slowly increases.

When formed on the basis of a birthmark, it manifests itself by changing its color, shape or size.

There are four types of melanoma:

1.Povrchově spreading melanoma
This form of melanoma is the most common (roughly 65% of all melanomas). It grows over the surface first, then starts to penetrate into the deeper skin layers. This form looks like a bump on a dark brown to black irregular pad.

2.Nodulární melanoma
According to statistics, this form accounts for roughly 20% of all melanomas. It is typical of him that from the beginning seen as the ridge on the skin. This means that the tumor progresses deeper skin.

3.Lentigo maligna melanoma
This form of melanoma is particularly prevalent among the elderly. It manifests itself as spots on which the alternating lighter and darker browns.

4.Akrolentiginózní melanoma
This form occurs mainly on the more distant parts of the body such as the palms, soles and under the nails. Initially, this type of melanoma can be mistaken for a wart, bruise or callus.

 

treatment of melanoma

Experienced dermatologist recognizes melanoma from benign sign naked eye, in some cases it is necessary to use specialized methods. In order to uniquely determine whether it really is a malignant tumor biopsy uses a method called when the patient removes a piece of affected tissue microscopically examined by a pathologist.

If indeed a malignant tumor, a doctor surgically removed and the lymph nodes in the area. After removing the scar melanoma is then treated by plastic surgeons.

The patient then periodically (every 3-6 months) goes to check into the so-called melanoma clinicfor 5 years. On these checks to determine whether the cancer has returned or has not started to form at another location (the people who once suffered from melanoma, have a greater chance of melanoma sick again).

These tours are also psychosocial function. Many patients with melanoma suffers from excessive fear and doctors in these inspections and their patients try many things to clarify and reassure them.

 

How can I help myself

We should learn themselves regularly examine their skin. We recognize that timely venture formation and prevent the complicated treatment of advanced cancer. It is stated that we should view three times a year and each investigation takes us about five minutes.

You do not need to do more than mirror, small mirror and a well lit room. If wearing discover that we birthmark increases or changes shape or color, or we appeared on the skin of a spot, do not hesitate to immediately visit a doctor. If the negotiations had a malignant melanoma, it is necessary that the doctor removed immediately.

For self-examination, we can follow the following points, which can at least indicative say whether it is a malignancy or not.

of Symmetry: If the sign perfectly round, is a very high probability that it is not melanoma

on Border: if the sign is not sharply defined, it is suspicious

Diameter of: if the sign is greater than half cm, or at observing magnification is probably malignant

Colours: if the sign is black or has multiple colors, it is suspicious

on the surface: if the sign you notice small bumps may be a malignant tumor

 

complications of melanoma

If the melanoma was discovered at a later stage, when it has spread to other parts of the body, treatment is very complicated. Therefore it is very important to all suspicious spots on the skin examined. And if so, we have a little suspicion of melanoma, see your doctor. In the early stage, namely melanoma completely treatable

 

Discussion

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Other Names: skin cancer, melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, melanoma akrolentiginózní

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