Description measles

Measles is among the typical childhood disease. It affects mostly children around the ages of 4-5 years. But can they get sick and older children and adolescents.

Measles is an infectious disease that is unfortunately also highly contagious. Themselves are not that serious problems are caused primarily potentially dangerous complications with measles often collocate. This largely in terms of pneumonia, middle ear infections and even inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).

Characteristic symptoms of measles include fever, conjunctivitis, coughing and a characteristic skin rash.

Measles is a disease similar to them already appear in the records coming from the 7th century AD.It is known to mankind thus this disease is very long. Still, the originator of this disease could find until 1954. In the following decade, was discovered the first effective vaccine vaccine. This vaccine meant a big breakthrough, because before the introduction of vaccination of the entire population were measles among the most common childhood diseases.

This disease until recently manifested as an epidemic and came at two-year intervals. Every year, leaving these epidemics after another not only thousands of children suffering from encephalitis and other complications, but also a lot of deaths. Fortunately, thanks to the discovery of the vaccine has managed to almost completely eradicate measles and today, thanks to modern medicines do not pose as serious illness in the past. Yet it is not to be taken lightly.


Cause and risk factors for measles

Measles is caused by a virus, which belongs to the paramyxovirus. The only natural host of the virus is a human.

The virus is spread through exhaled air. Infectivity of this disease is very high, approaching 100% in the case of staying longer with the patient in a closed space.

Among the highest risk factor therefore include prolonged contact with an infected. Measles infection is transmitted by droplets or direct contact with the patient.

Another risk factor that influences the course of disease is a vitamin A deficiency and malnutrition.


Signs and symptoms of measles

Measles infection will take effect approximately ten days after they get sick. Manifested by increasing the temperature. The temperature rises up to 38- 39 degrees.

Along with the temperature comes conjunctivitis. The eyes are bloodshot, badly burned and tears.They are also very sensitive to light. In the room with the patient should not take rozžínat strong guiding light, but rather use a weaker lamp.

There are cold and dry, irritating cough. Inside the mouth, inside the cheeks, forming small white spots or pimples. This phase lasts approximately four days.

Then starts the next phase in which the patient appears rash on the body in the form of small spots, which gradually darkens. The first attacks the rash behind the ears and gradually spread throughout the body. Across the face continues to the neck, trunk and limbs, and that the top and bottom. This rash is known by its characteristic color, which is red to reddish-brown. The size of this rash ranges from 3-7 mm.

Even at this stage, the patient’s fever, which decreases with the occurrence of rash. The patient is contagious to those around up to seven days before the appearance of the rash and up to five days after the first appearance of the rash. After about five days a week until all the symptoms gradually disappear.


examination of measles

The basis for the diagnosis of measles is a thorough medical examination and creation of detailed case histories. It examines whether you could come up recently in contact with an infected person, the date of your last vaccination and other important factors (eg. Foreign trip etc.).

In the case of the prevailing uncertainty, there is a possibility of diagnosis through laboratory procedure. Patient blood is taken and in a laboratory is determined by the appearance ofantibodies IgM and IgG in the blood. This method of diagnosis also helps rule out other similar diseases, which may suffer ill.

The course of the disease and its symptoms are often slightly different. A doctor should always be tested for measles in a child if the current manifestations of fever, cough, conjunctivitis and subsequent rash. The accurate diagnosis is confirmed when we found white spots on the inside of the cheeks.


treatment of measles

During treatment is needed consistent temperature control of the child. The temperature should be child to measure at least twice per day. Lowering of the temperature is achieved by the drug, in the case of decreasing the temperature to proceed to a washing and wraps.

It is necessary also to ensure adequate fluid intake. In the case of unpleasant burning eyes, it is recommended to place the child in the semi-darkness of the room and not to use bright light. Eyes can also be pre-washed with a cotton swab dipped in cold water.

The important thing is bed rest. In the event that temperatures will fall dangerously close to 40 ° C, must be immediate hospitalization of the patient, if these temperatures there is a risk of serious complications.

Complications of measles include pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. These complications are caused by other infections that attack the weakened immune system of the patient.

The most severe complication of measles is without a doubt encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. This could end up nerve palsy, a disorder of brain function or even death. This complication has a permanent impact over a third of children who are ill. There is also a very rare form of this complication. This inflammation of the brain called the sclerosing panencephalitis. It can manifest and develop several years after a measles and always ends with the death of the patient. However, usually only affects children who become ill with measles during the first year of life.

The main and fundamental aim of treatment is relieving the symptoms of the patient. Measles is no medicine which acted directly against the causative agent of the disease. Therefore, they have medication for measles as a major task to support the immune system of the patient.

In developing countries, where children often there is a deficiency of vitamins, it served as part of the therapy and vitamin A, which alleviates the symptoms of the disease. Most patients recover within ten to fourteen days. After recovering the child remains a lifelong immunity against measles.


prevention of measles

The main prevention of measles mass vaccination of the population. This vaccine protects a child against measles. In the event that, despite vaccination, a child becomes infected, vaccination prevents full bud disease and relieves its symptoms.

The vaccine is comprised of attenuated measles. Vaccination is frequently associated with antibodies to other childhood diseases and with vaccination for mumps and rubella. Seeded in two portions in the form of injection. For the first time in 15 months of a child’s life. In the 15 months since the child ceases to protect the antibodies derived from the mother. A second batch was then inoculated 6 months after the first.

Sometimes after vaccination appear slightly elevated temperature, cough or signs of rash. These manifestations occur in the range of five to sixteen days after vaccination. Rarely there is inflammation of the middle ear. These inconveniences after vaccination do not pose a serious danger.

Measles vaccination is mandatory, so it is very unlikely that your child will become infected.
In the case of appearance of disease, it is necessary to prevent the further spread of infection. Sick should therefore be preventively isolated at home. Isolation ends no sooner than five days after the first appearance of skin rash.


How can I help myself

During measles alone can alleviate various symptoms of this disease. At rush to help, as with other diseases common anti-fever pills.

Also, wraps and lotion everyone can practice at home. Speeches conjunctivitis can alleviate eye drops or washing wet wool.

On a cold nose drops to help again. Any suspected measles but should primarily be discussed with a physician.

Similar symptoms of measles may have

Scarlet fever, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, fifth and sixth disease


complications of measles

inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)

inflammation of the middle ear

sclerosing panencephalitis


Other names: morbilli, Measles

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