Mastitis


Mastitis

Description mastitis

Milk or mammary gland is a specialized glandular structure, which has an identical development (embryonic) basis as skin sweat gland. As is known, fully develops only in women, in men is called. Evolutionary vestige.

The origination and development of mammary date from 1.měsíce intrauterine life, when there is a thickening of the embryonic sheet, from which develops – this germ layer is called theectoderm. Thickening of the ectoderm gives foundation called.Dairy bar. Milk bar stretches across the chest and abdomen (in pairs). In humans develops only one pair of mammary glands (abnormally there may arise more precise localization dairy bars).

At the time of the birth of man is created the basis of the mammary gland. The base is absolutely identical in both children female and male. Development will begin to differentiate in puberty. Mammary gland (corpus mammae) consists of 15-20 lobes, each of which opens a separate milk ducts on the nipple(mammilla). Each lobe contains a cluster of acini.

The entire skeleton forms of breast Cooper’s ligaments, which creates a spatial network, and the projections are clamped to the skin of the breast. Furthermore there is a large adipose tissue, and stored in it mammary gland. Around the nipple (which is composed of connective tissue, and the circular and longitudinal muscle that is responsible for any erection nipple) is dvorec- mammary areola. On the edge of the areola are noticeable bumps, which may be two origins: Morgagni are cusps, which are the sebaceous glands located on the hair follicles or is a Montgomery bumps, which are minor additives mammary glands.

For growth galactophore probably the work of female genital hormonl – estrogens. Over the evolution lobuj then progesterone is responsible. Therefore, during pregnancy, when the breasts are exposed to enormous levels of hormones increase. After the woman giving birth, there is a significant decrease in the level of progesterone and estrogen less, but increases the level of the next hormonu- prolactin, leading to initiation secretion – lactation.

At the mammary glands we can also describe developmental or acquired deviations. The absence of one or both breasts, including the nipples known as Nastia. Imperfectly developed breast then asaplasia or hypoplasia. Excess breast is known as ectopic breast.

 

Reactive changes and inflammation of the mammary gland

Puerperal mastitis non-puerperal mastitis

Besides inflammation, which will be described below, we can see in the mammary gland with a variety of reactive changes. Examples reactive changes can be fat or hemorrhagic necrosis. The fat necrosis of the breast frequently occur after trauma. Bleeding (hemorrhagic) necrosis can occur as a result of anticoagulation therapy.
Mastitis or mastitis (mastitis) is an inflammation of the mammary gland parenchyma. It affects the vast majority of cases are women, but also men of mastitis cases are known.

The basic division is the period when this inflammation occurs. Puerperal mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that affects a woman during lactation (lactation). As a non-puerperal mastitis are indicated all other cases. Mastitis can sometimes resemble prsnímu cancer, and thus has to be taken into consideration.

 

puerperal mastitis

Puerperal mastitis occurs in relation to pregnancy, breastfeeding and weaning a child from breast milk. This disease often causes bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Other bacteria streptococci etc.

Most often affects a woman breastfeeding at 2-3 weeks. This is a relatively common disease, estimated to affect up to 33% of lactating women. As a cause of inflammation indicates blockage galactophore and overproduction of milk along with bacteria.

Several risk factors for inflammation are known, but their predictive value is minimal. This gives thepoor technique of breastfeeding, breastfeeding bad timing and stress.

Milk from inflammation of the affected breast may be rich in salt, which does not matter infants because the infant to saltier milk without problems adapts. The problem could occur when the child is weaned and fed on occasion another mother, the child threatens shock due to low sodium intake.

Besides severe mastitis it is not necessary to wean infants from milk. Regular breastfeeding turn may remove an obstacle in the breast ducts.

Signs and symptoms of puerperal mastitis

The first symptom, which a woman observes a strong pain in the breast. Skin cancer can be red,swollen, warm compared to the surroundings. Later, the woman may have fever and flu-like symptoms: fatigue, headaches and the like. Sometimes the symptoms occur all at once and very unexpectedly.

It is also often the situation when pus that results in inflammation, surrounds, and creates theabscess.

Treatment of puerperal mastitis

The first step is to make the best regular emptying of breast milk feeding. During lactation, the breast massage and can drape a warm compress. In case of bacterial infection, antibiotics are in place, but in most cases they are not needed.

 

Non-puerperal mastitis

It is a heterogeneous group of diseases that can be caused by many factors. May be againblockade galactophore, infection, trauma, clogging due to changes in the epithelium (squamous metaplasia of epithelium), antibodies against the fluid in galactophore like.

The whole group of diseases may cause granulomatous inflammation. The affected tissue are formed granulomas, which sees the pathologist under a microscope. An example could be sarcoidosis,tuberculosis or syphylis. To complement mention that the mammary gland can be attacked by fungi and parasites (actinomycosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, Aspergillosis, filariasis, Coccidiosis etc.)

Signs and symptoms of non-puerperal mastitis

Most often it is redness, swelling, the affected area is warmer compared to the surroundings.Affected place hurts. Further, it may be swollen lymph nodes, often unilaterally, bilaterally rarely are. Changes may also concern the nipples of which may change shape. Palpable abscess can be created.

Treatment of non-puerperal mastitis

It depends on the cause of. They are used antibiotics, a treatment that reduces levels of the hormone prolactin, surgical removal of the gland, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like.

 

Complications mastitis

The disease can go into the chronic phase, can produce abscesses that can create a fistula, which is leaking pus.

Other names: inflammation of the breast, mastitis, mastitis, puerperal mastitis

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