Manic depression

Manic depression

Description of manic-depressive psychosis

Bipolar disorder is characterized by a serious mental illness in which there is a periodic change of mood, vitality, mental functions and overall normal functioning of the body.

These changes will rotate after so. Cycles. When bipolar disorder appear four different kinds of periods, which are divided according to the type and severity of the symptoms. This is the periodhypomanic (mild, “hypo” comes from Greek and expresses the prefix “pod”), manic, depressive and mixed.

This mental illness affects approximately 1% of adults. This disease can prevent warning signals, but this is not always the case. The first signs of the disease can occur as early as puberty or early adulthood.


Risk factors for bipolar disorder

Manic depression among psychiatric disorders for which it is well known that their occurrence in the family can be inherited, and thus it is bound genes. However, it is important to realize that a person inherits only talent (predisposition) to certain diseases and inherited diseases themselves.The risk increases with a closer kinship relationship. The risk also increases with increasing number of relatives who suffer from bipolar disorder or depression.

Other factors that may give rise to manic-depressive psychosis, as strong emotions (fear, dread, grief, mental suffering, fear, etc.), physical and mental exhaustion or even seasons.


Prevention of manic depressive psychosis

This disease falls under mental disorders, which unfortunately can not be avoided in any way, because they are usually tied to a hereditary transfer (transfer talent to understand this disease).

The benefit can be a healthy lifestyle, insufficient physical activity, avoidance of stressful and emotionally challenging situations and factors, regular and adequate sleep habits and avoiding alcohol and other psychoactive substances (eg., Marijuana, LSD, cocaine, methamphetamine, etc.).


Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder

Now is the time to describe each season bipolar disorder and its symptoms.

It occurs when a person in a hypomanic periods, and the chronically exaggerated good mood,excessive energy, increased mental and physical activity, and generally feel in good shape. Affected is very talkative and easily establishes contacts with others, communicate without barriers, it isimmediate and unconstrained.

This period of increased activity may be reflected in the patient’s sex life, which can lead to superficial and reckless grooming and frequent changing of partners.

These signs manifest themselves in patients who are otherwise timid, shy and reticent. A person affected by a mental illness do not feel at this time the need for sleep and drowsy state. The rest of that person just mere moments after that feel totally refreshed and full of energy, and other lounging in bed pospávání taken as absolutely unprofitable business.

The beginning of this period comes quite suddenly without any warning signals and is generally well tolerated by the patient. Because at this time the patient does not experience any signs of illness, feeling miserable and is in no way limited disease, often stops taking medication and seeing your doctor.

Manic phase can be characterized as a period of excessively good mood and markedly increased activity. The patient feels absolutely strongest in all directions, invincible and unrivaled.Everything around him seems extremely simple and easy, and there is nothing that could not be resolved.

On the surface in his mind all sorts of ideas around is not even able to watch, let alone understand.With growing ideas, pace and activity of man does not want to waste time with the opinions of others and his speech would not stand not to interfere. Unless someone is interrupted, increases the irritation and the slightest stimulus inflames his aggressiveness and the person may act inappropriately, violently and dangerously.

Other times a patient may brimming with joviality, it tells different jokes, often vulgar or sexual overtones even in socially unacceptable situations. With these symptoms the patient is often unable to speak coherently, his expression not make head nor tail, and his speech is incomprehensibleand overwhelming.

The affected person is not capable of any concentration, which can outwardly show considerable distractions. A person suffering from this disease often lacks rational thinking and reasoning andhas excessive self-confidence, which is reflected externally exaggerated exaggerating their capabilities, knowledge and assets and megalomaniac ideas.

The patient lacks any social inhibitions, which makes it clear irresponsible, inadequate, negligent to risky behavior, which endangers not only themselves but also their surroundings. His ideas implemented immediately, without realizing the impact and consequences of personal, social and financial spheres. For example, we can mention the frequent excessive spending when the patient buys all sorts of unnecessary and useless objects, or when they enter perfectly inconvenient and even fraudulent contracts.

Serious consequences also brings called. Mania with psychotic symptoms when the patient experiences delusions and hallucinations. These persons are often found Delusions of grandeur in which the patient is morbidly convinced of its importance and excellence.

Megalomanické delusions can hit the psychological side, which manifests itself eg. The patient’s statement that all graduated from college and the world that controls all the world’s languages, as well as the physical aspects of personality. For example, the patient thinks he is the strongest in the world, it is immortal and can never succumb to any disease.

Among other psychotic symptoms we belong also called. Paranoia, which is typical unbearable touchiness, suspicion and controllable morbid thoughts.

Depression is another period, which is the opposite of manic states. This condition is characterized by a decline in mood, decreased energy and life and mental activity. The patient in this period looks sad, tired, worried and frightened, which is reflected in their mimicry, gestures and posture.

These people are often shunned by society, they are taciturn and their feelings and thoughts rather hide from the world. Often there is a complete resignation when a person loses any interest,activity and initiative. Any challenges and obstacles that previously the patient easily managed, are now unattainable for him and insurmountable.

People in this stage of disease are not able to feel the joy around the world sees only the negative colors, unable to concentrate, they lose all interest in their hobbies, family and friends. The patient feels constantly sleepy and it can tire even the slightest activity or exercise. For these people there is also a decrease in self-confidence and self-esteem, and any failure or failure to arrive at their own incompetence and inability.

With low self-esteem further themselves already and feelings of worthlessness, guilt andremorse. Often, the patient also plays with the idea of suicide.

Depressive states are also accompanied by a so-called. Physical symptoms, e.g. weight loss, sleep disorders, loss of sexual appetite etc.

A condition which is characterized by the above symptoms and may not fit neatly into a category, the status is mixed.

Persons suffering from manic depression differ second period, which at that time also suffer from the frequency with which the individual periods occur. For some people with manic and depressive periods exhibits the same frequency for other more frequently manifested depressive states and vice versa.

Patients with bipolar disorder during the first ten years spend about four above-mentioned periods.Women more likely to experience depression as men suffer from manic episodes.

Different periods can last for days, even years. In some cases it may occur between the various stages and full recovery, after which it may occur after several years of any symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis. Other patients may continue to suffer from depression or mood swings.

Bipolar disorder mainly occurs in adolescent or early adulthood. However, it may begin to manifest in childhood or vice versa until about fifty years of age. If a person older than fifty years old suffer from manic phase for the first time may not be always a manic-depressive psychosis, but the culprit may be consuming excessive amounts of alcohol or use of drugs.


Treatment of bipolar disorder

In order to improve the patient’s condition, it is necessary that the treatment is started early and that it is properly positioned. If there is a neglect of treatment, non-use of drugs, completely ignoring etc. can have a negative impact on the patient’s mental state. First, this effect may reflect the patient’s health status and also may increase the risk of attempting suicide, which is to everything in the first years of this disease very high. This assertion can be proved by the fact that one in five individuals afflicted by manic depression during the illness commit suicide.

It may even occur that the disease becomes chronic, it means that the patient of symptoms of bipolar disorder never rid.

Some people may suffer more frequent alternation of different phases, which greatly complicates treatment because elapsed, each phase can bring with you further complications. This condition is called incitement. Treatment aims of these phases to minimize.

In the treatment of manic depressive psychosis recommended three main drugs. These are called. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. The patient may also be prescribed drugs that have ancillary effects eg. Insomnia, anxiety, restlessness etc.

Antidepressants to treat symptoms of depression. In bipolar disorder antidepressants must be taken in combination with mood stabilizers. If antidepressants are used without these stabilizers can correct this problem in patients affected by bipolar disorder result in causing manic phases.Pharmacological market offers various types of antidepressants with different chemical mechanisms as well as side effects.

Other drugs that are used in the treatment are antipsychotics which have a stabilizing effect on the patient’s state of mind.

Mood stabilizers called. Tymoprofylaktika are used to keep the mood within normal limits. They are administered during the so called. Tymoprofylaxi, mood stabilization, at which the preventive use of these drugs to prevent the pathological fluctuations of mood. The mood can be fully stabilized after several weeks.

An effective method for treating bipolar disorder is also called and psychotherapy. Phototherapy(light application).

Furthermore, the treatment of mental illness is used, the public often unfairly negative labelingElectroconvulsive therapy. This is the quickest and most effective method of acting that saved many lives already patients who suffered from severe depression or manic states.

Yet not invented any other treatment method that would overcome the effects of Electroconvulsive therapy. It is used only in the most difficult cases, manic depressive psychosis, e.g. when very severe depression, in patients with suicidal or patients with mental state despite treatment does not improve, and have long been suffering intolerable symptoms of the disease.

The patient therapy alone remembers and feels no pain, because it is put to sleep before a performance. In some cases, also brings negative side effects, e.g. in the form of a temporary disturbance of memory, which, however, again in a few months to recover.


How can I help myself

During manic-depressive illness, you should you and your family to try to learn as much as possible about the disease and its treatment. Read the book dealing with this issue and attend and have fun with your doctor or therapist.

Keep a regular sleep pattern. Make a habit of going to bed at night about the same time in the morning and get up at the same time. Various studies have shown that irregular and disturbed sleep patterns can lead to mood disorders. If you are planning to travel abroad, which are subject to different time zone, make an appointment in advance with your doctor.

In addition to sleep, keep in regular operation and its daily routine. Activities of the plan, not lazy, but also do not change.

In the course of the disease consume alcohol and other psychoactive substances, eg. Marijuana, methamphetamine, cocaine, LSD etc. Alcohol and drugs can impair the effectiveness of existing psychopharmacological treatment, disrupt sleep patterns and can enhance mood swings.

Also, beware of consuming caffeine and some freely available drugs against allergies, colds and pain, because even small quantities of substances present in these medicines, can negatively affect mood and sleep or interact with your prescribed medication.

Accept help and support from your family or friends. The benefit can be shared family therapy, or visit the support group psychotherapy.

Try, as much avoiding stress and psychological onslaught, and that most employment. Try to adjust working hours so that you always get to bed on time and well rested. In any case avoid barter operation. If you are due to bipolar disorder not able to work, talk to your doctor about whether a job to do away completely or just take a few days off.

Learn to recognize the so-called. The early warning signals that comes with other phases of bipolar disorder. Each individual has such a different warning signals and the sooner you recognize it, the sooner it can be helped. These signals may be represented eg. Change of mood, sleep, self-confidence, activity, concentration, sexual interest, sudden optimism or, conversely, thoughts of suicide, loss of self-judgment, and even a change of hairstyle or style of dress.

If you have doubts and think that the treatment does not work correctly and that you have rather different side effects, and do not hesitate to consult your physician. In any case themselves medication: Do not stop nor alter their dosage.

If you are experiencing signs of aggression, you have suicidal tendencies, suffer from mood disorders, sleep and energy, you have the urge to use freely available medicines for colds or sore immediately regardless of scheduled tours, contact your doctor.


Complications of bipolar disorder

Up to half of cases leads to increased consumption of alcohol or drugs that may prevent dependence and its health complications (eg. Liver disease, peripheral nerves etc.)

Bipolar disorder also carries various social risks. The patient may cause inconvenience eg. Inappropriate banter, arrogant and assertive. The public is usually not on the mental health of individuals and sufficiently informed in such conduct attributed to the charachter of the patient, allowing the patient complains quite personal and social life.

Significant financial loss that accompanies frivolous behavior in the manic phase, often causing subsequent social problems that are logically connected and with a partner or marital relationship, which may be that mental illness also negatively affected.

Other names: bipolar affective disorder, cyclophrenia, maniomelancholie, maniomelancholic psychosis


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