Malnutrition


Malnutrition

Description malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition where the individual has a shortage of nutrients necessary for the function of the organism. May be the lack of essential nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) or lack certain parts of food (such as vitamins, trace elements, of essential fatty acids, etc.).

Food intake is controlled by a center in the brain (called Hypothalamic center of hunger and satiety), which is activated by various stimuli – for example, if we intensively for some food, get it in a minute taste. Another stimulus may then need to be hungry or empty stomach. These incentives run out into the hypothalamic centers, where they are processed, evaluated and based on the result are then activated by either the center of hunger and you have a need to eat something or satiety center, which is on the contrary a great feeling of fullness. The same is controlled and receiving fluids.

Since our body does a tremendous variety of processes, an adequate supply of energy, which allows to perform these processes. Without energy would not work nearly no cell – all need energy to maintain their integrity, rebuilding, repairing defects, exchange signals and many other processes, and without them it would not be possible to make the body work, they would gradually dying cell. Energy transformations in the body called metabolism, and share it on basal and supplementary.

basal metabolism

As basal metabolism called basic energy transformations that are required to maintain all vital functions such as the heartbeat and breathing. This energy our body burns every day, whether at home or lie must be running marathons. What is the one about basal metabolism is reported in the tables Benedict. It is possible to have it on the advice of a doctor to measure. These methods of measurement is called direct and indirect calorimetry. Men have a higher basal metabolism by about 5 to 10%, because they have more muscle mass.

Additional metabolism

Additional metabolism is then the conversion of the energy we need for the activities that we do.Each of our activity (whether conscious or unconscious) increasing energy demands. Each activity has approximately calculated how much energy we burn at her. This energy is necessary to supplement the form of food. If we accept food in the approximate amount of energy, which it then burn a variety of activities, the energy state is settled. But if we take a long time more energy than we will, we are to store this energy in the form of fat under the skin. Conversely, during prolonged insufficient caloric coverage reduces weight. How much energy should we receive each day is provided by age, sex, workload, and many other criteria in the relevant tables. It is also possible to control calorie intake, because there are tables that are assigned to individual food calories (kcal or kJ). If we have a long-term high intake Energy to lower physical activity, it will appear to us usuallyobese. Whether or not you have it so determines. Body mass index (BMI). The ideal values are in the range of 20 to 25, with values above 30 it is a question of obesity. Is it possible to calculate the eigenvalues of height and weight.

To preserve and maintain the health of every person is necessary that our body in a balanced state. This will ensure not only the correct calorie intake, but also the choice of the individual food components. From basic food a person should consume 50 to 55% carbohydrates (sugars), 25-30% lipids (fats) and 15-20% protein (protein). At the same time it is necessary to receive and minerals, trace elements and vitamins.

Malnutrických when these rules are violated and the man has a low energy intake or other percentage distribution of individual food components. Low energy intake may be due to disease – for example, tumors in the digestive tract, which makes it difficult swallowing and patients then receive less food because they do not light anything to swallow. Anorexia (nechuteství, which has many causes – may be mental or caused by medication), mental bulimia (uncontrollable binge eating followed by efforts to netloustnutí – patients after eating vomiting, taking laxatives …),malabsorption of nutrients like. Another cause of low energy intake as economic factors – for example, in very poor countries. At an incorrect percentage distribution of food ingredients we need to talk about kwashiorkor, which is fairly common, especially in poor African countries, and in which the lack of dietary protein – called. Protein malnutrition. This is a very serious condition, because when a lengthy absence of protein in the diet gradually consumed proteins of the body and then it is missing in many important locations (e.g., blood proteins that transport important substances around the body or antibody). Disability then often die of different causes of failure of the organism.

If malnutrition is not treated, it can lead to complete disruption of metabolism (marasmus)

Malnutrition is widespread in our country especially among hospitalized patients. On arrival at the hospital has about 20% of patients, malnutrition, and their number has doubled during hospitalization. There may be several. The patient may be different after surgery without appetite that he can still reduce some medications they take. It may also have different eating habits or taste his food. Therefore, usually in hospitals in patients receiving calculates BMI that nursing staff know what is happening to the patient is. When deviations from the normal state then contactednutritionist (nutritional sister) that the patient compile appropriate diet will consult with him his status and dietary habits, eventually provide additional care (such as consultations with a psychologist).

Risk factors for malnutrition

The risk factor in case of malnutrition in our population most attempts to lose weight when the patient either reduce your calories or omits certain food components (such as fat). Risk can also be a disease in which a patient due to health condition leaves appetite, or it will lose as a result of taking certain medications. Negative can also cause long-term hospitalization.

Preventing malnutrition

As the name implies, is actually malnutrition inadequate nutrition. Preventive measure is therefore in any case balanced and varied diet energiticky sufficient to satisfy the rules of rational nutrition. From basic food a person should consume 50-55% carbohydrates (sugars). But it is not necessary for sugar cubes (although the sugars also belongs), but most of starches, which are found in fruits and vegetables, a fiber that promotes intestinal activity and more. There are also a necessary part of food lipids (fats), which should constitute 25-30% of energy intake. Fats constitute the body mechanical and thermal protection, because they are poor heat conductors and then escapes from the body worse. From the fat intake is essential indispensable (essential) fatty acids – linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which the body can not produce itself and which it needs for various metabolic processes. Another nutrient that can not be missing in our diet are proteins(proteins) that should be represented 15-20%. Proteins are large molecules that are actually composed of amino acids, which are variously interconnected to create a structure which we call as protein. Some amino acids can form the man himself, others must supply food (leucine, isoleucine, valine …). At the same time it is necessary to receive and minerals, trace elements and vitamins.

symptoms of malnutrition

For malnutrition due to low calorie intake is the main symptom of emaciation, sometimes to the extreme (cachexia), which is verifiable by calculating BMI, which is at 18.5 hodnátách under another symptom. Patients are in the early stages of malnutrition more sensitive to cold, are constipated, and nausea. Longer duration suffer from anemia (its symptoms are paleness, dizziness, drowsiness, shortness of breath already low load), insomnia, osteoporosis (here’s the first sign of increased bone fragility and brittleness), liver disorders. Affected more spoiled teeth have impaired skin, they break their hair and nails. In malnourished children with slowing growth, thriving, mental development and delays the onset of puberty. For women often disappear mestruace.

treatment of malnutrition

Treatment depends mainly on what caused the malnutrition. If it is for example malnutrition caused by a disease, it is a major disease and simultaneously cure the patient to ensure optimal supply of nutrients (such as various nutritional drinks or nutrition administered intravenously). For hospitalized patients who are starting lose weight, it is important to consult with a nutritionist condition of the hospital, that patient will ensure suitable conditions for quality nutrition. The biggest problem with the treatment, however, in patients (in particular patients) suffering from a mental disorder and food consciously refuse. Whether it is at the point of care psychologist(psychiatrist), which along with a nutritional therapist works to increase the weight of the victim, the appropriate diet and also to cure the disease. In severe cases, these patients are hospitalized at the respective centers where they have ensured permanent supervision of food intake and also attend the consultations with a psychologist, group therapy and the like.

How can I help myself?

In mild cases, just when we start to eat normal, the creation and forcefully enough food. But if the BMI on the border with malnutrition (BMI 18.5) is the best possible help to find an expert to determine the cause of the disease and help solve this problem.

complications of malnutrition

Quantity complication is directly proportional to the malnutrition which is present. Patients are more susceptible to infectious diseases, which may complicate to the extent that it can cause permanent damage or even death of the organism. Lack of protein in the blood, it may indicate impaired blood clotting.

Other names: Malnutrition, energy malnutrition, marantická malnutrition, protein malnutrition, kwashiorkor

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