Lung cancer

Lung cancer

Description of lung cancer

At the beginning of the twentieth century was a rarity lung cancer, lung clinics, which will come to see doctors and medics. After the massive expansion of cigarettes in the twenties was an enormous breakthrough. The number of lung cancers have increased sharply and became feared, but still underestimated disease of smokers who try their luck with the fact that their grandmother smoked a pack a day and lived to even so hundreds.

Billion dollar turnover tobacco company chooses a high price – in the Czech Republic suffers from lung cancer about 100 men from 100 thousand and approximately every twentieth man succumbs to cancer. Appealing is the increasing number of lung cancers in women.

Lung cancer has become the most common cancer, although its risk can be reduced to the minimum contrast should be from breast cancer or prostate cancer.


Cause and risk factors for lung cancer

Many studies have shown that smoking has a direct correlation with the development of lung cancer. Smoker who smokes twenty cigarettes a day has approximately thirteen times greater risk of developing lung cancer than a nonsmoker. For long-term smokers lung cancer about 25%.

The risk of lung cancer among smokers is affected by the type of tobacco, filter absenteeism and number of cigarettes smoked. It is also influenced by the fact of how many years and how long a person smokes. If a person stops smoking, the risk of significantly reducing the number of days without a cigarette.

Risk of course, is also the passive smoking. Smokers often threaten the health of their children by smoking, partners or colleagues. High risk of progressing bartenders, waiters and waitresses working in a smoky environment.

The association between lung cancer and poor living environment has been demonstrated only inheavily polluted areas (such as high concentrations of asbestos or uranium). In large cities like Prague or Brno this link is not proven.

The emergence of lung cancer are also involved genetic factors that are not yet fully understood.Have been revealed certain enzymes activating carcinogens and mutant chromosome segments.Sometimes, however, the reason for the onset of lung cancer is unknown and affects non-smokers without the genetic predisposition.


Signs and symptoms of lung cancer

Lung cancer is very insidious because its symptoms appear very slowly and quietly. If you share a household with a smoker one, you get used to the smoking cough and not notice the moment when the cough does not sound like before. The beginnings of the disease, which is still well treatable usually reveals mostly random X-ray.

The first symptoms are very nonspecific and may indicate many other ailments. It may appeartemperature, hoarseness, loss of appetite, weight loss, difficulty swallowing or chronicfatigue.

A warning signal should be persistent cough often conjunction with expectoration of blood andpain around the chest. Chest pain is dull, often under the shoulder blade on the affected side. If there is a sharp pain, represents a penetration of the cancer into the chest wall.


Examination of lung cancer

In cases of suspected lung cancer with your doctor first discuss your health status, problems, and if you’re a smoker or non-smoker. After adding your history you listen to the lungs and lymph nodes Palpating, if not enlarged.

Basic examination by X-rays. Radiography reveals changes in lung tissue and suspicious formations. Modern examination is called. Cétéčko (CT = computer tomography, computed tomography), which is safer and shows many more structures (and even the individual layers of the lungs). A more accurate representation enables multiple X-ray heads to “take a picture” the body from several sides. Computer tomography is used to determine the status of the tumor, finding metastases determine the status of nodes and chest wall.

For insights into the respiratory tract endoscopy uses a method called a bronchoscopy.Bronchoscopy can reveal tumors on the wall of the bronchi and trachea by X-ray or CT scan may not necessarily reveal. There are two basic types of bronchoscopy, the most common is called. Rigid.This is usually done under anesthesia, which was introduced through the mouth rigid metal tube.During the examination, sampled brush or needle for histological examination.

When modern flexible bronchoscopy is used fibers leading the light surrounded by a plastic sheath.The doctor can see the image directly or using the camera. Furthermore, there videobronchoskopie example in which a small Cameras bronchoscope introduced directly into the body. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is numb method because it can detect even minor changes in the lungs before the onset of the cancer itself.

If your doctor wants to perform thoracentesis or pleural puncture, do not worry. Using long needles wants to suck a fluid from the lungs and chest wall, to look for tumor cells.

Another unknown concept could be endobronchial ultrasonography. It is also one of the ultrasound used methods for determining the tumor stage and overall condition of the disease.

Mediastinoscopy is a cut above the sternum investigate the area between the lungs and removes the sample.

Thoracoscopic thoracic cavity is inspected holes on the back and chest, or a sample is taken.

Thoracotomy exempting nodes and tissue through the incision in the chest.

Needle biopsies remove some tissue from a tumor or a lymph node using a thin needle.

An important part of investigative methods is histological examination. Specially adapted tissue samples are examined under a microscope. It is the surest method to confirm or refute the diagnosis of lung cancer.

Generally, you should undergo a medical examination every smoker over 50 years. Because the risk of developing lung cancer after 50 years of rising sharply.


Treatment of Lung Cancer

After confirming the diagnosis of lung cancer it is important to begin treatment as soon as possible.Successful treatment depends on the stage and type of tumor. However, overall disease prognosis is not positive – treatment is therefore mostly focuses on relief and prolong the patient’s life. The most complicated situation arises if there is an extension of metastases (tumor deposits) to nearby organs.

Lung cancers are divided from a medical point of view into two main groups – small cell and small cell. Knowledge of these two groups is particularly important for treatment.

Small cell tumors are among the most insidious. Small cell tumor grows rapidly and soon spread metastases throughout the body. Histological shape is further divided into many subtypes (for example, spindle, round cell …).

The main treatment for small cell lung cancer is chemotherapy. Treatment is administering medicine called. Cytostatics. They contribute to the disintegration and blocking cancer cells.Cytostatics are administered regularly after 2-3 weeks, mostly by infusion into a vein.Chemotherapy always accompanies many side effects. Patients suffering from hair loss and hair, nausea, vomiting, impaired kidney and bone marrow.

Chemotherapy is often combined with radiotherapy. Irradiation consists in transmitting beam current to the affected area to stop tumor accretion. Radiotherapy is an enormous burden for the human body. You feel exhausted and may have breathing problems (if radiotherapy damaged lung tissue). The brain often preventively irradiated, because in 70% of patients are found in the brain metastasis.

For non-small cell tumors manifestations vary according to the type – there are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma often occurs in non-smokers, as arises from glandular tissue cover after severe illnesses such as tuberculosis.
Epidermoid cancer tumor contrast off the skin.

For non-small cell carcinomas are the most effective surgical procedure. It is however possible only in 20-40% of patients. If the patient did not meet certain pulmonary and vascular standards alone operation would pose a threat to his life.

Due to the type and stage of the tumor are performed three basic operations – wedge resectionwhen removing a smaller portion of the lung; lobectomy, when the removal of lung lobe andpneumonectomy at which removes the entire lung.

The operation is carried out even when it is not possible to remove the entire cancer – tumor shrinkage to a minimum is important for subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy.


Prevention of lung cancer

The most important step in preventing lung cancer is to quit or not start smoking at all. If you can not get rid of their habit yourself, consult your physician or a specialist clinic. If you are over 50 years old and you are an active smoker, insist on preventive medical screening.

Avoid prolonged environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoking also kills thousands of people every year.


How can I help myself

So serious illness such as lung cancer your life fundamentally affect. But never give up fighting it!Taste and effort to grapple with it, has already helped many patients.

Similar symptoms of lung cancer may have



Complications of lung cancer

The most serious complications are metastases, which can occur in all organs. Metastases are tumor cells from a tumor separated and blood vessels or free space is given to other parts of the body where it continues to proliferate. Often affects the bone, lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver and adrenals.

Other names: lung cancer, lung cancer


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