Laryngeal cancer

Laryngeal cancer

Description larynx tumor

The tumor, a word of concern False tumors What the tumor is and how does it originate? The causes of tumors Benign tumors of the larynx Malignant tumors of the throat or larynx


The tumor, a word of concern

What is and is not a tumor, which is actually a cancer illness and is always on the spot immediately think of deadly diseases? Given that nezdravotník often when laying these questions groping, it appears necessary to state at the outset of this article basic information on the meaning and context of medical words tumor and cancer.


false tumors

Medical science knows, first called. Pseudotumours(pseudonádory, false tumors), which looks like a tumor, but otherwise do not meet the definition of, and not be too dangerous. This is e.g. called. Hypertrophy or hyperplasia, therefore, increase in volume of tissue that gives suspected cancer, particularly if the laterally asymmetric (e.g. magnification left kidney relative to the right kidney).

Then there are cysts, which are cavities lined with epithelium containing fluid (generated eg. Closing the outlet gland mistake developments after the accident etc.), and cysts similar formations such as abscess (bounded bearing filled with pus) or other changes arising as a result inflammation.

Non-tumorigenic polyps are essentially harmless arching mucosa.


What is the tumor and how does it originate?

Right tumor formation is composed of cells that are more or less similar to the cells of the tissue from which it originated. The cells of most tissues and throughout life divide (reproduce dividing the original cell into two new daughter cells). This process replaces the old and malfunctioning cells and maintains a stable number of cellular elements in the tissue.

Information necessary to control the number of division of cells is just like any other information encoded in the cellular DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Error in the structure of DNA, it may mean a reduction or complete disappearance of the mechanisms of cell division are reduced to an absolute minimum. Cell starts to divide uncontrollably, created a large number of copies of her equally harmful, while this mass of cells appear macroscopically as a tumor.

Often precedes tumor formation called. Precancerous. This is a change in the structure of tissues that are more susceptible to tumor formation, mainly for the reason that cell division is here for a reason accelerated. Speeding then increases the likelihood that the newly created cell will reside DNA erroneous structure, which then causes further uncontrolled cell division.

Develops from precancerous inflammation, metaplasia (change of appearance mucosa caused by long-term irritation) or in organs that respond to growth hormones (endometrium, prostate, mammary glands).


Causes of cancer

Damage to the structure of DNA with the above consequences can result in factors of physical, chemical and biological.

From the physical factor is the radiation in the form of X-rays (too frequent taking radiographs), gamma (staying in the radioactive environment) and UV radiation (excessive sun exposure, use of solaria).

Among the factors chemicals in everyday human environment all include cigarette smoke and smoke in general (eg. Smoke and processed foods – meats), alcohol, fats (fatty foods in relation to colon cancer) and certain preservatives in food.

Biological factors include, in particular, some viruses (HPV, EBV, HIV-1).
Concepts malignant and benign forms of tumor growth and spread (metastasize) in the body.

Tumor growth can be expansive, it means that the tumor neprorůstá into surrounding tissues, only oppresses. It is a favorable situation versus invasive growth, where the cancer cells get into surrounding structures and propagated between the cells of healthy tissue.

A benign tumor is such a tumor, which is melting from the surrounding well-bounded, grows slowly and expansively. Metastasize, ie. do not spread and does not create new deposits elsewhere in the body. Under certain circumstances, however, can turn into a malignant tumor.

Malignant tumor (malignant) grow rapidly, invasively, destroying surrounding tissue and is capable of seeding (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Metastases means introduction of tumor cells through the blood, lymph or body cavities to the new location to form a new tumor.


Benign tumors of the larynx

The most common benign laryngeal cancer is papilloma. Papilloma is a generic name for a tumor arising from the surface epithelium, a layer of cells lining the lumen of body (located on the surface of the mucosa). It is caused by HPV virus (Human papilloma virus, human papillomas).

Papillomatosis is an accumulation amount of papillomas in one location, it is typical for children.These HPV virus can be infected during birth from the mother. On the vocal ligaments (and subsequently in the area of supramolecular and infraglotickém, see explanation of terms. Laryngitidách article on this site), then grow numerous confluent papillomas, which are characterized by rapid growth and recurrence (rediscovery after treatment).

Relief usually comes at puberty, as the tumor responds to hormonal changes, the frequency of relapses decreases.

As an adult, so there are more individual papillomas, which grow more slowly. After treatment may recur, but usually within a few years. This type of cancer significantly jeopardizes human. However, it is necessary to maintain discipline, fully determined to undergo medical treatment and established controls, as well as by the papilloma threatens to overthrow the possibility of a malignant tumor.

It may also arise in the larynx benign tumors from other tissues present, but their occurrence is raritnější than the papilloma. For example it is adenoma, a benign tumor of the lining of glands,hemangioma, a benign tumor of the lining of blood vessels (endothelium) or chondroma, a benign tumor of cartilage.


Malignant tumors of the throat or larynx

It is most often a cancer of the lining (epithelium) of the larynx. According to the location of the tumor in the larynx are described as cancer, glottic, supraglottic and infrequent cancer infraglotická (i.e. Subglottic).

For all three types, the are not captured in the embryo, then grow invasively significantly destroy the cartilage of the larynx and metastasize (in particular by the sap to local lymph nodes, metastasis to distant sites are frequent, they are then usually in the lungs), can cause many complications (see. below).

Glottic cancer tumor growth begins on a vocal cord, from where it spreads to other glottis. The tumor grows deeper tissues as well as into the surface, typically metastasizes later (at the time of detection of cancer often still no metastasis).

Supraglottic cancer spreads from the epiglottis in the throat, tongue and nearby parts of the pharynx. Metastasizes rather also in the later stages of disease. Due to the rich spread into the surrounding tissues, however, it is difficult to treat.

Infraglotická cancer grows into the surrounding structures (ie descending into the trachea, up to the vocal cords). Metastasizes early.


Risk factors for cancer of the larynx

Risk factor is the sex, the vast majority of disease manifests in men aged over 40 years. It demonstrated a clear link with smoking. Supraglottic cancer is related to alcoholism. It is also a risk factor for long-term nature of exposure to other carcinogens (substances suspected of supporting cancer), eg. In the work environment.


Symptoms of cancer of the larynx and medical examinations

Cancer of the larynx may occur Still in hoarseness, foreign body sensation in the throat anddifficulty breathing (breathing “through the barrier”). Supraglottic cancer report difficulty in swallowing (pain).

ENT doctor can use laryngoskopického mirrors appear suspicious growth in the larynx. Such tissue is then removed (biopsy) for microscopic analysis. The pathologist determines whether the tumor and the stage. The extent of the growth is then determined by modern imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging), the status of cervical lymph nodes is controlled by ultrasound.


Treatment of cancer of the larynx

It is primarily surgical. Depending on the malignancy, stage and size of the tumor is either the route via the mouth or via the external neck body removed, of the larynx or the entire larynx.

In medical terminology used expressions cordectomies (removal of the vocal cords), horizontal partial laryngectomy (removal of laryngeal column) and total laryngectomy (removal of the entire larynx), where the entrance to the airway is Negotiable treacheostomy, a hole in his throat.

The approach is always the most advantageous compromise between preserving the function of the larynx and a sufficient therapeutic effect. In the later stages of tumor growth are also collected cervical nodes to which they metastasize the tumor cells.

Another treatment option is radiation, which is used both individually and as adjunctive therapy for surgical treatment in the later stages of the disease.

Chemotherapy is rare, has low efficiency.

When complete laryngectomy disappear vital functions of the larynx – the voice of creation. This condition can be surgically adjust when the established communication connection between the trachea and esophagus. The esophagus is created algae that form the basic tone of vibration. After training, it is possible to generate a voice that allows for smooth communication. Another option of voice device is called electrolarynx.


Successful treatment and complications of cancer of the larynx

Treatment naturally has the best effect in early detected cancers. Timely usually come glottic cancer patients (with developed hoarseness). Conversely supraglottic cancer symptoms develop later, which corresponds to a lower success rate of treatment.

Most patients with early stage cancer is treated successfully and to recurrences or complications may not occur. In contrast, patients with the most advanced stage of the chance of another five-year survival without complication or recurrence of the tumor about 40%.

Complications of tumor belong gradual closing of the airways and oppression blood vessels and nerves around the tumor, which can cause escheat brain tissue, pain and breathing disordersduring the oppression of the phrenic nerve.

Complications occurring after treatment include tumor recurrences, and the possible appearanceof metastases (often up to one year later) in nearby nodes distant metastases occur in the lungs.

Other names: tumor of the larynx, cancer of the larynx, cancer of the larynx, laryngeal benign tumor, malignant tumor of the larynx, a benign tumor of the larynx, cancer of the larynx, cancer of the larynx

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