Kidney Cancer

Kidney Cancer

Description of kidney tumors

If we look at kidney cancer in general, it is necessary to divide them into benign tumors whose nature is not aggressive and are usually well operable and do not tend to aggressively expand into the surroundings, or metastasis. This group of tumors include tumors called angiomyolipoma (angio = vessel myo = muscle cells, lipoma = tumor of adipose tissue. As is evident from the title, the composition of this tumor is varied), which is often found in patients with disease tuberous sclerosis.

The second group are malignant tumors that already have most of aggressive behavior, can create metastases, may themselves vascular supply and aggressively grow into the surroundings, while destroying the tissue that stands in their way. The most common malignant tumor of kidney cancer. To explain this concept. Carcinoma is mistaken for cancer as such. This is not so because the cancer is a type of cancer (as well as the tumor, sarcoma, etc.), Which differs from others by the cells from which it is based.

The basic building block of the renal nephron. Nephron is impossible to imagine such a long pipeline, which has specialized parts and turns it differently kidney. Now for the special function of individual parts of the nephron may be cells that line the inner part of the “pipe”. These cells are called epithelial and their main ability is to sort waste to be excluded from the body in urine (urea, exhaust fumes metabolism) and substances that the body needs (water, glucose, proteins).

Once this violated their function, they find themselves in the urine of substances that it normally should not be, and it is a signal that the kidney is something wrong.

To return to cancer. Carcinoma is cancer that comes just from epithelial cells and is the most common type of cancer – about 80%. The kidneys can meet with a total of three types of cancer –kidney cancer clear cell (Grawitz tumor, renal cell carcinoma), papillary renal cell carcinomaand renal cell carcinoma chromofobním. The latter two are not very common, for that reason we will not deal with them.

Grawitz tumor constitute 70-80% of all kidney tumors. Creates filled structures which mimic the structure of the gland, also it is possible to find the lumen (opening that extends through the center). The tumor is strongly interwoven vessels, therefore, is well nourished and works very well as a separate unit, while this property explains the early development of metastases, since tumor cells directly get into the blood stream and it comprise no to remote locations where they settle and form metastatic foci tumor. Grawitz incidence of cancer is usually between 40-60 years of life and is twice as common in men than in women.


Risk factors for kidney tumors

Risk factors for kidney cancer are primarily smoking and genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition are meant various changes in the human genome (all human genetic information) or the presence of hereditary diseases that may entail a risk of greater incidence of renal cell carcinoma, as is the case with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome.

Increased incidence of cancer is also observed in patients chronically failing kidneys and in thedialysis treatment. It is also observed increased incidence in obese patients, so obesity is definitely seen as a risk factor for cancer as well.


Preventing kidney tumors

In the event that a family history of kidney cancer, it would be appropriate after the fortieth year of life to visit a doctor and have the write control Sonography of the kidney. The problem of cancer is most often in that, once symptoms occur, the tumor is sufficiently developed and are often distant metastases that the operation may no longer be beneficial. If the disease is caught early, is quite easily solvable operations. Certainly contribute to the prevention, if one is a nonsmoker and watches his weight.


Signs and symptoms of kidney tumors

Symptoms are not essential, this is precisely the kidney cancer very treacherous. It is reported as the presence of blood in the urine (haematuria) or pain in the lumbar region.

Both, unfortunately, has its pitfalls. Often microscopic hematuria is, it means that her man does not even notice and usually it really even notice. Pain in the lumbar area is mostly, if it is indeed a renal cancer, a symptom until very late, when the tumor has already distant metastasis at various locations of the body and when it is really very difficult to support.

Frequent contrast, anemia (anemia), but so it was verified, it is necessary to make a blood test.Such a small device to detect whether a person is anemic – a good look at the lining of the mouth or on the conjunctiva. If they are significantly pale, there is a strong suspicion that the amount of red blood cells is normal. With precision but can such a state be determined only after proper laboratory examinations.

We are speaking of blood counts and draw blood. May be present in a high amount of calcium in the blood. The tumor has had the ability to remotely control the plasma calcium levels.

As a general for each cancer is often a large weight loss (large loss meant the loss at around ten kilograms of weight in about half a year). It mostly everyone notices in a timely manner, and if the weight loss is not deliberate, a lot of cases it will lead to a doctor.

It is often the first symptom of pathological fracture. What does it mean? This is such a fracture, which occurs when a seemingly innocent movements – for example, step down the stairs, a small jolt hands, for example, on the corner of the table. If in this case discovered tumor renal pathological fracture symptom of the tumor metastasized to bone. In the presence of metastases, survival averages around one year.


Treatment of renal tumors

Therapy options are few, but the success is mostly dependent on the stage at which the tumor was detected.

Surgical treatment involves either partial (if the tumor is small and it would be unnecessary to take the whole kidney patient and his life thus weight dialysis) or complete removal of the affected kidney. Simultaneously taken and surrounding lymph nodes. This procedure is chosen and in patients who have metastases because there is a certain percentage chance that after removal of the tumor may disappear.

Radiotherapy treatment is rarely used, especially in cases where it is not possible to use surgical treatment.

Immunotherapy – is the most effective choice even if metastases are present and in some cases it is possible to achieve lasting results. Treatment is performed either interferon-alpha orinterleukin 2 – both are natural body because under certain circumstances it forms themselves.

As a promising method for the future appears to stem cell transplantation, which could have the ability to destroy cancer cells by inducing the immune defense reaction of the organism.


How do I help myself

In the case that the tumor has been diagnosed, and in particular, in the case of cancer, there is no way help himself enough to significantly benefit from treatment.


Complications of kidney tumors

Kidney cancer is a disease that is serious, especially if it is discovered at a later stage.Complications in the early days of the disease are not fundamentally obvious and often, unfortunately, one does not even know he was sick.

The most feared complication is the formation of metastases because their presence complicates treatment and worsens the prognosis. Distant metastases are deposits of tumor tissue. Their presence in the institutions operate diversely – can oppress tissue, remove it largely nutrients or may produce substances that act destroying host tissue.

Kidney carcinoma often metastasizes to the lungs, the brain, or in bone. Now in bone can cause bone resorption and related fractures, although the bone does not cause a large mechanical force, as described above.

Another complication is associated with the treatment. Although immunotherapy treatment is very promising, but at the present side effects such as high temperatures or low pressure.

Other Names: kidney cancer, tumor Grawitz kidney carcinoma vodojasných cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma

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