Jaundice


Jaundice

Description jaundice

Viral hepatitis is also known under the name of jaundice, but this designation is not entirely correct. Hepatitis, jaundiceprofessionally, is the term used for the yellowish-colored skin, mucous membranes and eye sclera. It is caused by a high concentration of a substance called bilirubin in the blood. It may, however, also occur in other diseases, such as biliary tract obstruction .: disintegration of blood cells, and other liver disease.

When talking about viral hepatitis, then clearly regard toinfectious hepatitis and jaundice as a symptom does not always accompany him. In this disease, the liver is infected with hepatitis A, B, C, D, E or G.

The various different viruses cause serious liver disease. Types D, E, G, but in our area practically absent. There can be only very rarely and especially for man who infected them abroad.

However, types A, B, and C are also in the Czech Republic are relatively frequent and, therefore, we will, in this text, pay attention mainly to them. Different types of viruses have a different way of transmission and progression, so there will be described separately.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is the most frequently occurring and the least serious type. It is contagious and very unpleasant disease. If someone is diagnosed with the disease, it is obliged to treat the closed isolation wards until until no longer contagious.

This type of hepatitis occurs only in the acute phase and never passes into chronicity (see below).Hepatitis A is sometimes called the disease of dirty hands, which is the name given to a certain extent apt. Spreads had called .: fecal-oral route. This term would almost literally gave translate as “excrement-mouth.” The source of infection is often infected human feces and then everything had been contaminated.

Although it sounds repulsive, in everyday life it is very easy to become infected this way. The common factor is the transfer of contaminated water. The time that elapses from infection to manifestation of the first symptoms (incubation period) is around thirty days.

Hepatitis B

This type is transmitted by blood and body fluids from an infected person. The infection occurs most often when unprotected sex or injecting drugs. It is also possible transmission from mother to fetus.

Hepatitis B can go from acute inflammation to a chronic stage, which happens in about 10%. The incubation period is about ninety days.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is transmitted mainly by blood, but it is also possible bodily fluids. That is why it is often called the disease of drug addicts or homosexuals.

Passes into the chronic stage and very often it is about 70%. The incubation period here is aroundsixty days.

It’s a serious disease, which, although less than speak about HIV disease, yet would but it, too, deserve similar attention.

 

Signs and symptoms of jaundice

Typical course of hepatitis is the initial stage of the disease, all three aforementioned types, very similar symptoms.

The first symptoms are loss of appetite, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, indigestion, pressure in the right upper quadrant tenderness and weakness. Later I sometimes add even higher temperature and the overall picture of the disease can look like flu, making hepatitis sometimes initially misdiagnosed.

Sick sometimes have pale (acholic) stools and vice versa very dark urine. When fully developed the disease, followed by icteric phase when these symptoms also adds yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes and eyes (jaundice or jaundice).

In some cases, it may be the first sign of the disease was to jaundice. Further progression of the disease is already but different in different types, so there is shown separately.

Viral hepatitis A: This type after the initial phase and zaléčení subsides. An infected person ceases to be infectious and is not a carrier of the virus. But sometimes even a year thereafter, may occasionally occur fatigue, loss of appetite and nausea.

Specific types of hepatitis A are anicteric (without exhibiting jaundice) and the so-.: malignant form. The malignant form is very rare and severe, occurs in about 0.1%. It has a fast course, it causes liver failure and often ends in death of the patient.

Viral hepatitis B and C: After the initial phase, the patient is either completely healed or diseaseenters the chronic phase and the virus remains in the body infected.

Chronic phase still further divided into two different forms. The first is called .: chronic persistenthepatitis. It is easier to form when the patient is suffering from symptoms for a long time, which were described as the initial phase. In the liver, they are apparent in the long term signs of inflammation. These difficulties, however, within one year, without consequences, again subsides and affected person recover fully.

The second phase chronic active hepatitis, which is unfortunately very serious. Liver cells die, disappear and are replaced by connective tissue. In the liver still survives Hepatitis B or C, and the patient becomes a carrier. This stage often adds autoimmune response, resulting in a steady deterioration of the disease, which end up to hepatic cirrhosis.

 

Risk factors for hepatitis

Higher risk of hepatitis A occurs in environments where low standards of hygiene. Frequent is the disease while traveling abroad, particularly in southern Africa, America, Asia and Eastern Europe.

Increased incidence is also in children’s collectives and in individuals who do not comply sufficiently hygienic habits.

The Czech Republic has regularly recorded high growth of the disease in the autumn.

Viral hepatitis B and C appears the most in the community, drug addicts and homosexuals.Risk are often the medical staff. The risk of infection may be at tattoo parlors, where they do not comply with proper hygiene regulations.

Risky behavior is considered unsafe sex, frequent changes of sexual partners and drug use needles which previously already had been used.

 

treatment of jaundice

The doctor first performs tests on blood and urine. If confirmed with viral hepatitis A is sickimmediately admitted to a hospital for infectious department, where compliance with quarantine measures to prevent the further spread of the disease.

Subsequent supportive therapy involves modifying diet and sleep mode. Strict liver diet is characterized by limiting fat and an increased amount of proteins and sugars. It also applies astrict ban on alcohol.

After removing the virus from the body and caving problems is ill discharged to home, but still half a year after adheres to a diet and does not perform strenuous activities. In the therapy should generally strengthen the body’s defenses.

People who were in close contact with the infected are under increased health surveillance, and they are preemptively administered antibodies.

In hepatitis B or C, the treatment is the same, but the patient is not in hospital isolation wards.

However, if Type B moves into the chronic stage, it is necessary to administer drugs calledinterferons, which prevents further propagation of the virus in the liver.

If you go into the chronic stage hepatitis C, chosen again interferon or lamivudine, which is combined with the drug ribavirin, which also inhibits the multiplication of the virus. Unfortunately interferon and ribavirin have many nežádoucívh effects.

Differentiation of chronic acute stage is performed by biopsy.

 

How can I help myself

When the hepatitis A virus can, after consultation with the doctor, taking additional medication for rehabilitation and support liver function.

During one year of infection is inappropriate alcohol consumption. Forgive therefore prefer the occasional, celebratory toasts. Absolutely inappropriate drug use. The liver is the detoxification is a kind of authority, and if they are infected with hepatitis, not only can not sufficiently break down harmful substances, but also they are very loaded. The course of treatment is then extended and there is a greater liver disease.

In the period of illness and convalescence Avoid greater physical exertion.

In this disease as a supportive treatment is recommended to drink a decoction of the herb milk thistle.

 

prevention of hepatitis

The best prevention of hepatitis A and B vaccines. Vaccination can be individually against type A or B, but it is better vaccine protects against both types simultaneously. The vaccine should be administered in three doses. After the first administration next month after applying the last third dose followed six months later. Vaccination is especially useful for people who travel abroad or work with biological material. However, hepatitis C is still no known vaccine.

Another preventive measure against hepatitis A virus is compliance with sanitary habits. Wash your hands every time after using the toilet, when you come from outside or before meals. The pharmacy or drugstore you can buy a small disinfect the skin, you can always carry and is immediately ready for use. Food Eat only well-cooked. If you are not sure about the wholesomeness of water available, rather always boil.

To avoid infection with hepatitis B and C, use during sexual intercourse condom always, avoid frequent changing of partners and do not use injectable drugs needle, which already had been used before you. Of course, it is best not to take drugs at all. If you would like to perform a tattoo or piercing, choose a good salon. The infection can also occur infected tattoo needle.

Many people fear the disease during blood transfusions or dialysis. Earlier, the risk of danger, but today, thanks to a careful examination, it’s basically impossible.

 

Complications of the disease jaundice

In severe cases the disease there is a transition into the chronic stage, and consequently also toliver cirrhosis and liver failure.

chronic stages is increased risk of liver cancer.

Other names: hepatitis, viral hepatitis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis, hepatitis, viral hepatitis, viral hepatitis, a disease of dirty hands, infectious jaundice

 

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