Description intoxication

Intoxication or poisoning are acute conditions, accompanied by alarming symptoms that occur suddenly or over a short period gradually developing. Can leave permanent disability and oftenlife-threatening.

Huge amounts of substances that can happen to humans poisons, and different chemical and physical nature of these poisons correspond to the vast diversity of symptoms, which are poisoning manifested. In the following text can be advantageously used the term “poison” to refer to all substances that can cause symptoms of poisoning.

However, we must bear in mind that such a definition in certain circumstances, are also appropriate substances that human long surround entering into and leaving it without damage, and therefore to them as poisons usually nepomýšlíme. For example, inhalation of concentrated oxygen gas else entirely necessary for human life, may, in the longer term toxic effects. It follows that the period during which the poison acts, and the amount (or concentration of poison), are among the factors in deciding on the extent of damage the body.

Similarly, it depends on the way that harmful substance enters the body, and on the extent and quality of responses elimination mechanisms against the presence of poison in the body fighting.

Due to lack of space in this place listed first general information on any poisonings in the second half of the text, the reader will find specific information on the most common poisonings. They are complemented by first-aid procedures.


Adverse effects due to poisons in humans

As already mentioned, the action of the poison (whether it is specifically active material or e.g. caustic chemicals) begins its entry into the body. This happens most often through the digestive tract (by eating or drinking poison). It is usually the substitution of bottles, confusion plants or fungi or eating food containing the bacteria produced toxin.

Less often penetrating venom into the body by inhalation (breathing toxic gases, smoking, drugs),intravenous administration (with drug addicts or in case of errors in drug administration), orthrough the skin.

It is necessary to distinguish between accidental poisoning and the deliberate poisoning (drugs, suicide attempts).

Gat venom can cause so immediately. Nonspecific effect. Its expression is not required specific interaction of the organism with poison, since tissue damage has been operating alone physico-chemical nature of the poison (e.g. mucosal burns drinking liquor).

Conversely, specific effects occur interference poison to human metabolism and / or to the nervous and hormonal control organs. Therefore, they are eventually present specific symptoms (eg. Salivation, disturbance of consciousness, cardiac disorders and many others). These effects may occur immediately, but it is perhaps a certain latency, a delay of speech poisoning. This period may be several hours (eg. After poisoning agaric).

The human body itself is capable of some toxins removed from the body, which serve primarily the liver and kidneys. This is what speed the destruction and elimination performed determines how long will poison the body work. Poison can be excluded from the body without leaving permanent damage. Other toxins are capable of causing irreparable damage (especially in the already mentioned the liver and kidney), leading to loss of organ function.

Some toxins need to cause irreversible damage to their repeated administration. As an example may serve alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver.


Possible signs of poisoning (general part)

If the poison was ingested through the digestive system, can be expected vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. These are typical and often the only symptoms of poisoning plants. Ubedené difficulties are accompanied by other symptoms of poisoning in industrial cloths, sponges etc. Shocking pain occurs when the destructive effects of corrosive substances on the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts.

Among other symptoms of poisoning mention heart rhythm disturbances in the sense of acceleration, deceleration and / or irregularities, increase or decrease in blood pressure and fever. It is also possible to observe slower or faster breathing activity, its irregularity, deep breathing or shallow breathing. In some poisoning (especially certain gases) occurs skin discoloration.

Conspicuous are disorders of consciousness, from torpor to coma or increased vigilance and hyperactive state. Especially in the case of drug poisoning may be present in various disorders of the psyche, on the one hand, disinhibition and euphoria, on the other hand, depression leading up to the aim of harming or aggression.



Treatment is often initiated by lifeguards symptoms that the patient appears (guideline for the diagnosis of poisoning are also farewell letters, packages of drugs or chemicals, the remaining berries, mushroom dishes, etc.).

After transport to the hospital’s physicians aim to prevent further absorption of substances from the digestive system into the blood, if entered into the body by ingestion. This can be done in several ways depending on the nature of the substance and if the patient is conscious.

Possible methods are: promote vomiting, gastric lavage, total lavage bowel enema (enema) and the application of large amounts of charcoal. Patients unconscious must be first secured airways intubation only then introduced into the stomach probe, which is a rinse performed.

Another element of treatment is called submission. Antidote, antidote, a substance that counteracts the effects of the poison. Poison must of course be precisely determined and not against all poison antidote exists. If the poison unknown, takes place during the first steps of treatment the patient a set of diagnostic operations to its findings (toxicological analysis of vomit, blood, determination of fungi mycologist, botanist, plants, etc.) That can be selected antidote. His administration is required as soon as possible, with the passage of time loses its meaning.

In some cases it is necessary to try to eliminate the toxin circulating in the blood. It is used to do such. Technique of forced diuresis: injecting a patient is given large amounts of fluid, which is then using diuretics (drugs increasing urine production) through the urinary tract expelled, thereby removing urine and a large proportion of poison.

Another efficient technique is hemoperfusion, in which the patient’s blood “clean” flow over charcoal (charcoal has a large absorption capacity and poison, but also other components in the blood binds).

In other cases it may be to remove the poison from the blood used in the most demanding instrumentation – hemodialysis, which poison the blood “washed out” in extracorporeal circulation.The latter techniques are only available at specialized clinics


The most common types of poisoning and first aid

Poisoning plants Poisoning agaric alcohol poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning


poisoning plants

Most plants in our environment cause only gastrointestinal irritation with abdominal pain, diarrheaor vomiting. Substances contained in some species have an effect on the nervous system (belladonna, Durman general, daphne, yew etc.). For children is relatively frequent replacement of berries Crow’s eye for blueberries. Berries taste sickly child usually eats very small amount, although it is enough to cause poisoning. Poisoning ends rarely fatal, usually at absence of medical care. The long-term organ damage occurs.

First aid includes induction of vomiting (if patient is conscious and working), administration of large amounts of charcoal (possibly several packs) tablets to melt in water. KEEP specimen plants, a portion of the patient ingested or her better pass all the doctors. Urgently transported to the hospital in severe poisoning during the call an ambulance.


Poisoning agaric

This is a very serious poisoning tricky for a long period of latency (onset of symptoms within 8 hours of ingestion or longer). Initially manifested by vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

The poisons contained in muchomůrce green acts escheat liver cells and kidney disease, irreversible damage to these two institutions the patient died despite intensive treatment in hospital. Agaric constitute the overwhelming majority of mushroom poisoning in the Czech Republic and is fatal in four out of five cases.

The first aid is triggered vomiting, we serve the largest possible amount of charcoal, which the patient is able to swallow. It is essential in a timely manner is suspected mushroom poisoning, ensure waste or scrap mushroom dish for mycological examination.


alcohol poisoning

It is recognized even by the layman according to the characteristic smell of mouth intoxikovaného, and called drunkenness (ebrietas Alcoholica). Her progression with increasing amounts of ethanol in the blood can be characterized by four stages.

In the first stage of alcohol removes inhibitions in communication and other social interaction, raises mood (euphoria acts up), increases self-confidence to perform tasks which would otherwise dare drinkers. The ability to quickly and accurately respond to sudden stimuli is reduced.

The second stage, these capabilities further reduced. Errors are already noticeable in the implementation of stereotyped patterns of movement, such as walking. Waning orientation, estimating the distance and generally reduces the quality of perception.

The third stage is the complete deterioration of the functions of the nervous system, drunk falls into a coma from which it is difficult to wake up, inarticulate speech and communicates there with him an acute danger of aspiration.

Fourth stage threatened not breathing and heartbeat, which without adequate help lead to death.Lethal blood alcohol is given physical stature, enzymatic equipment and the rate of alcoholism.

First Aid focuses on maintaining airway patency and control vital functions. Put victim in therecovery position. If there are signs of respiratory disorders (irregular) or if the patient vomits persistently, call an ambulance. Vomiting lost from the body fluid, drunkenness induces a low concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood. In case of unconsciousness are two problems solvable only professional intervention.


Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide is formed by incomplete combustion of fuels in engines, stoves and water heaters (karmách). It is colorless and odorless, so the contaminated environment can not discern its effects and the exposed person feels like dizziness shortly before falling into a coma.

Carbon monoxide binds to red blood dye that distributes oxygen throughout the body. Distribution of oxygen to the tissues is therefore considerably restricted, in addition to carbon monoxide with the dye binds more strongly (oxygen breathing usual concentration no chance that bond “overcharge”).

Symptoms of poisoning are unconsciousness, bright red skin and are likely breathing disorders and circulation. In the early findings of the affected and the availability of professional help (therapy concentrated oxygen) can be a full recovery.

First aid consists of plotting to fresh air, calling the emergency services and the need to prepare lay resuscitation (artificial respiration and chest compressions) if respiratory arrest. In the case of the availability of oxygen bottles (eg. For divers or in a well-equipped racing lékárničkách) patient we breathe oxygen.


How can I help myself

In poisoning prevention is always important. Always keep chemicals in their original containers, if its spillover eg. PET bottles from beverages is necessary to consistently mark the bottles.

Store medicines away from children and significantly senile people, when their use is timely introduce the recommended dosage.

Children would like to gather berries only under the control of an adult. Picking only such fungus with which we have experience and you can identify them. Always, if we have the slightest doubt about the kind sponge rather we consumed.

Other names: poisoning, overdose

Share your experience: