Inflammation of the pancreas


Inflammation of the pancreas

Description of the pancreas

The pancreas is placed in the abdominal cavity, the greater part anneals to the rear side of the stomach. We can sort it into the digestive system, because it produced enzymes aid digestion,but it must be stressed that it is very important also involved in the metabolism of sugars (her fault may lead to the developmentof diabetes). It is a “double” gland, the two parts (see below) into each other and mutually zavzaté surround.

When referring to diseases of the pancreas (pancreas), it should be first noted that the pancreas in the human body has two functions. It consists of two different parts.

This is both the endocrine glands (its products are released into the blood). This part contains islets of Langerhans (the group of special cells of the pancreas), which creates and producehormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin). Hormones are then released and affect different processes in the body.

The second part of the cells consists of exocrine glands (the product – digestive juice, is released into the small intestine). This part produces enzymes: trypsin cleave proteins at amino acids,amylase and lipase converting carbohydrates converting proteins.All these enzymes are produced in inactive forms (proenzymes), the inactive form (pro-enzymes) are activated only by using other enzymes that are present in the duodenum (the duodenum), where the outlet orifice outside of secretory part of the pancreas (the one that produces digestive juices).
The mechanism of activation of enzymes provides control over to enzymes not activate earlier than necessary and thereby damaging the pancreas or its outlet.

 

Description inflammation of the pancreas

Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) is a disease involving the two main groups of diseases: tryptic pancreatitis (inflammation, which is the pancreas characterized by, caused by premature activation of trypsin and falling between acute illness) and group named as “other” inflammatory (similar to inflammation in other organs) .

Both groups can find acute, chronic and relapsing (returning) the mold.

Acute inflammation of the pancreas (acute pancreatitis)

It is mainly caused by infections, obstruction (blockage) terminals, ischemia (inadequate blood supply and oxygen to the tissue), toxic factors and injuries.

It is more common in men, between 30 and 50 years of age, but gain among younger cases. The cause is a 50% long-term consumption of hard alcohol in 30% biliary tract disease and 20% in terms of necrotic pancreatitis.

Tryptic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis tryptic) is very frequent, belongs to the group of acute illness. It is mainly the obese middle or old age, more often in women, often after theexcesses in food (high fat) and drink (concentrated alcohol) or a blunt blow to the stomach, sometimes after heavy lifting.

The basis of the disease is premature activation of digestive juices (premature activation of trypsin – cleaving enzyme protein) that then natravuje own pancreatic tissue, thereby damaging it.

Damage to the pancreas and subsequent inflammation thus leads excessive intake of fat meal or concentrated alcohol (which activates the excessive secretion of digestive enzymes, which are still activated in the pancreas); digestion of pancreatic tissue own enzymes prior organ damage eg. a blunt blow to the stomach, biliary tract diseases – eg. gallstones (cholelithiasis) and less frequently in the pancreas same stones that block the drainage of the pancreatic digestive juices (pankreatolithiasa).

The pancreatic damage and subsequent inflammation can also meet some other diseases (tuberculosis, scarlet fever, syphilis).

 

Risk factors for pancreatitis

As with many other diseases and in inflammation plays a major role pancreas genetics. Among risk factors is therefore a malignant tumor of the pancreas (pancreatic cancer) with another family member (often occurs in men). Another factor is tumor one of the other abdominal organs (stomach, intestine, uterus) that leads to tumor infiltration into the pancreas, this condition is called a secondary tumor of the pancreas (pancreas).

Significant contribution to the development of certain types of inflammation of the pancreas are alsoalcohol, obesity and poor diet (high-fat diet).

The risk of pancreatitis increases also in cholelithiasis, which is a stone in the gall bladder, which can travel from the gallbladder and bile ducts become clogged.

The last group of the major risk factors are conditions after a blunt blow to the stomach (eg. In collective and martial arts) or heavy lifting.

 

Preventing inflammation of the pancreas

Prevention by inflammation of the pancreas is not showing. However hurts avoid excessive drinking and eating too much fatty foods.

The risk is also reduced in preventing gallstones (baby intake of dietary cholesterol).

If you know of a case of pancreatic cancer (pancreatic) in your family, be sure to inform your doctor is very important to detect tumors in time (especially for its destructive effect in the tissues of the pancreas).

 

Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis

In the acute form there are severe pain in the upper abdomen (epigastrium) or left upper quadrant, but sometimes can occur throughout the abdomen and radiate to other parts of the body (back, left shoulder blade and sometimes left shoulder).

Pains are accompanied by vomiting (but that does not relieve; in vomit is food additive and bile) orfeeling “sick” or hiccups and nausea. We pledge to observe gas and stool.

The patient is seriously seized, a rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), rapid breathing (tachypnea),fever, disorientation and behavioral disorders (increased aggression, nervousness).

In severe and rapidly emerging cases the patient died a few hours, so it is necessary immediatelyafter the development of these symptoms, consult a doctor. The patient may go into shock (low blood pressure, shortness of breath, worsening of heart function).

Chronic forms are accompanied by pain, which comes intermittently but with some delay after the ingestion of food. Patients lose weight, partly because due to pain after eating food restricted, partly because due to insufficient supply of digestive juice leads to poor digestion of nutrients. This lack of digestion in the intestine and causes a visible change in stool which is glossier and“greasy” (contains more fat).

 

Treatment of inflammation of the pancreas

Treatment depends primarily on the type and rate of development of individual pancreatitis.

Concerning chronic pancreatitis and inflammation takes time without life-threatening manifestation, is not required hospitalization. Your doctor will determine a diet very low in fat (lipid), while a high proportion of sugars (carbohydrates) and protein.

If the inflammation and longer enzymes are produced in insufficient quantities, prescribe drugs that organism those enzymes necessary for digestion supply. When damage to the islets of Langerhans (decrease in insulin release, which helps absorption of sugars into the cell), it is necessary to developing diabetes treated by artificial (synthetic) insulin.

In acute forms need to act quickly, because the long-delayed may develop shock and even death.Therefore, it is required hospitalization. The first step is conservative treatment: treatment of shock, the severity of the damage to the pancreas doctors administered drugs to suppress activity of the pancreas and pain relieving drugs, infusions complement missing fluids and ions deployingintravenous nutrition (necessary dietary components administered via infusion in solution).

Monitor vital signs (intensive care unit – ICU) and monitor the patient’s condition.

Hospitalized ill not necessary period (several days) to take food by mouth (orally). Has introduced: nasogatrickou probe (NS tubing is introduced through the nose into the stomach where it is possible to extract the contents or administer liquid food or medication), urinary catheter (a tube inserted into the bladder, allowing the departure of urine and measure its quantity) and central venous catheter.

In some acute cases (in treatment longer than 5-7 days without a significant improvement) there is no other option than to surgically remove part of the pancreas irreversibly damaged or passable outlets (either pancreatic or common terminal of the pancreas and liver – ie. Biliary). Through a cross section through the abdominal wall in the upper abdomen, the surgeon reaches the pancreas.If necrotic (necrotic) tissue is free, is removed (nekretomie).

 

How can I help myself

When developed pancreatitis is easiest to assume so. relief position, which is inflammation of the pancreas bent or kneeling “on all fours”, but this solution is the only rescue, for the treatment is necessary to visit a doctor. Another possibility is the reduction of pain diet with less fat and more sugars volume.

 

Complications of pancreatitis

In extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to development ** diabetes (diabetes). ** Internally secreted of pancreatic islets of Langerhans are damaged released enzymes and stops them in the production of insulin (a hormone affecting sugar metabolism). If the damage reaches a critical limit is a lack of the hormone insulin.

Another complication may then be a condition where the damaged portion of die (necrotic) to induce further inflammation. Into light debris is deposited connective tissue and calcium salts (calcification), but the necrotic tissue may also be infected with the bacteria, normally found in the intestine where they are beneficial (occurs in 60% of cases). The pancreas can develop cavities filled with fluid (cyst).

If the ducts are blocked by pancreatic and liver (bile ducts), leads to stasis of bile and digestive juices in the outlet and return (in the pancreatic duct is yet more pressure than at the outlet of the liver and thus leads to liver damage pancreatic juices and development of jaundice – jaundice).The development of jaundice occurs in the 25%. It is necessary to think that it is possible to spread the infection to other organs and structures within the abdominal cavity.

Inflammation of the pancreas can be replaced with the following diseases: perforated gastroduodenal ulcer (ulcer of the stomach and duodenum interfaces), mechanical bowel obstruction, myocardial infarction. Therefore, in an interview with the doctor any of your symptoms do not deny it, try to bring you even irrelevant details associated with the disease.

Other names: pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas, pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis

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