Inflammation of the esophagus


Inflammation of the esophagus

Description inflammation of the esophagus

Inflammation of the esophagus, the condition associated with damage to the esophageal mucosa. The most common cause of such damage is gastroesophageal reflux disease(gastroesophageal disease, esophageal reflux disease or also) at which the reflux of stomach contents (including irritant hydrochloric acid or saline) into the esophagus.

Normally, the lining of the esophagus is protected against such situations in several ways. First, the proper function of the lower esophageal sphincter, anatomical structures, which passes through the esophagus and which govern the correct position, self-cleaning ability of the esophagus due to peristaltic movements, neutralizing properties of saliva and some natural immunity (resistance) and esophageal mucosa.Failure of the interplay of these defensive factors or any of them leads to reflux (reflux) of gastric contents.

Some influence also have some food products (coffee, garlic, chocolate, fresh bread, cola …) and drugs (especially against pain – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Ibalgin, Paralen etc., Opiates, heart medicines and many others) which either increase gastric acidity (ie, increase the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach), decrease mucosal immunity or slowing gastric emptying or reducing the peristaltic movements of the esophagus.

If the reflux decides about its consequences, duration, composition and quantity of refluxing gastric contents (the degree of acidity and also the content of bile, which you can get here from the duodenal-duodenal), resistance esophageal mucosa, self-cleaning ability of the esophagus and the rate of gastric emptying.

In other words, the disease results from a disequilibrium of defensive and aggressive factorsthat act on the mucosa of the esophagus. Most often serious damage occurs just at night, when the stomach contents into the esophagus gets easier (among others missing factor of gravity, as happens during the day in the upright position).

Among other inflammatory diseases of the esophagus include corrosive esophagitis andinfectious form of inflammation of the esophagus (thrush, herpes, cytomegalovirus esophagitis).

Corrosive esophagitis develops from burns the esophagus caustic substances (acids, alkalis, phenolic compounds, etc.), Mostly ingested accidentally, but also in an attempt at suicide. Very occasionally one hand and on drugs that get stuck in the esophagus and cause mucosal damage.

Fungal esophagitis, or thrush, Candida infection or candidiasis is a disease caused by the fungusCandida albicans. It is an infection that uses impaired immunity (we talk about. Opportunistic infection in immunodeficiency). It occurs in patients in poor condition usually treated with antibiotics, cytostatics (drugs dampening cell growth, used in oncology), immunosuppressants (medications that suppress the immune system) or corticosteroids (medicines dampening the immune response – inflammation, autoimmune happening). It is always necessary to think of the possible infection of HIV (causing AIDS). Difficulties are usually small to none, may be an incidental finding.

Herpetic esophagitis induced by HSV (herpes simplex virus), as well as cytomegalovirus infection caused by CMV (cytomegalovirus) are relatively rare and usually occur only pain when swallowing (odynophagia).

 

Risk factors for inflammation of the esophagus

Risk factors include inappropriate lifestyle associated with smoking (nicotine reduces the voltage lower esophageal sphincter) and obesity, as well as irregular meals, inadequate composition of food – fatty foods including chocolate, fresh sourdough bread, or irritant foods such as garlic, onion, mint, poppy, cola , coffee, alcohol and juices.

Heavy lifting and work forwards and pregnancy leads to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, and thus contributes to reflux.

 

Preventing inflammation of the esophagus

Diseases can be prevented by lifestyle changes such as weight loss, avoidance of increase in intra-abdominal pressure (ie. A force to restrict heavy work such as carrying loads and work with bent), smoking ban and withdrawal from the diet foods that cause problems (see above).

It is recommended to also sleep on an inclined bed (bed supported in the head section about 20 cm).

 

Signs and symptoms of inflammation of the esophagus

Leading symptom is a special kind of pain – heartburn, or heartburn. This pain is described asburning pain behind the lower part of the sternum.

Initially, it appears only after certain foods (baked foods, fried foods, sweet, alcohol, black coffee), in advanced cases suffer ill pains after each meal, often an empty stomach and at night, when the condition worsens after lying down in decreased production of saliva .

The source of pain is a direct irritation of mucous membranes, esophagus stretched and vice versa temporary withdrawal of the esophagus in other levels.

Another symptom may be a feeling of deadlock bites throat – difficulty swallowing (dysphagia),painful swallowing (odynophagia) or foreign body sensation in the throat without any proven cause (ie. A globe).

Chest pain can sometimes be so nonspecific that can mimic other diseases, eg. Heart disease (heart attack). Many patients also complain about the loss of taste, hoarseness, chronic cough,bronchitis and asthma, and hence often fail to reveal the cause of the disease, because only half of patients have at gastroscopic examination (endoscopic examination of the esophagus and stomach using a camera inserted through the mouth) positive finding on the esophageal mucosa.

Associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease and is given an increased incidence of caries on the basis of damage to tooth enamel acidic gastric juice (we are talking about the penetration of acidic gastric contents into the mouth called. Regurgitation).

 

Treatment of inflammation in your esophagus

Treatment consists in mild forms of the disease in avoiding risk factors and protective administering drugs with serious threats is in place, surgical treatment, followed by medicaments (drugs).

As regards the administration of drugs, the basis for restricting the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and increase the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter. As the basic drug is administered so. H2 – receptor (PR. Ramitidin, famotidine) and so called. Proton pump inhibitors(eg. Omeprazole, pantoprazole). This treatment is always long.

Additional treatments are called. Prokinetic agents affecting the mobility of the esophagus and esophageal sphincter (increasing its tone – contraction).

To cope with occasional problems with using antacids that reduce the acidity of stomach contents.Their advantage is that they act very rapidly, however, relief is short lived.

There is a certain relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcers and inflammation of the esophagus. When the card is usually put on antibiotics to eradicate it.

 

How can I help myself

If you suffer from inflammation of the esophagus it is advisable to avoid irritating foods and foods about which you know, that you do not do well.

You should limit your weight – not to be obese, eat regularly, eat fatty foods, eat at night and even more preferably 3 hours before bedtime, limit alcohol intake to a minimum and also stopping smoking has a positive impact.

It is also important to be rational in the use of painkillers (benefit from these drugs sparingly and its practical use), overload at work, lift the heavy loads, work in bent.

For acute difficulties will help the digestive drink a glass of soda (commonly available in supermarkets or pharmacies) or milk (milk and soda act as scavengers effect of acidic gastric contents), the effect is relatively rapid, but short-lived.

 

Complications inflammation of the esophagus

Complications of esophagitis can be both rise esophageal narrowing (stenosis), followed by the TOR. Barrett’s esophagus, a change known as metaplasia and considered a precancerous condition, ie. The state with the development of cancer.

Another possible complication is the emergence of esophageal ulcer (ulcus oesophagi).

Stenosis of the esophagus develops from damage to the esophageal wall and scar formation, such scars can be multiple. Sick then has difficulty when eating.

Barrett’s esophagus is a condition where there is an exchange cell type normally occurring in the esophagus for another type of cells that are normally found in the intestine. Diagnostically, it can be confirmed only by microscopic analysis of biopsy tissue (the tissue removed during endoscopic examination of the esophagus).

Oesophageal ulcer is most often manifested by pain, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and painful swallowing (odynophagia).

Other names: esophagitis, esophagitis, reflux esophagitis, corrosive esophagitis, fungal esophagitis, herpes esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus

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