Infertility women


Infertility women

Description of female infertility

Female infertility is nowadays very topical issue and the occurrence of this problem is increasing. More and more couples solves the problem that they are unable to conceive a child naturally. If we are dealing with infertility of a woman, you need to be divided into several categories.

Primary infertility – as primary infertility is evaluated the situation when despite regular sexual intercourse (meaning at least twice a week) for at least one year is a complete absence of conception.

Secondary infertility – is classified so that, despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse over a period of one year there has been no new conception after past fertilization occurred.

“Unexplained infertility” – fall into this category absence conception of reasons, such as nursing (lactation because during lactation leads to the release of a hormone that prevents pregnancy), oral contraceptive use, decreased activity, sexual life or unknown causes.

So much division and theory. In order to be able to understand why the mechanism of natural ability Conception does not work, it’s good to know what it looks like when everything works as it should.We start with the menstrual cycle. It is divided into several phases, which will discuss in detail:

The first phase of the menstrual cycle, the follicular phase, which lasts until the 14th day. With hormones, namely follicle stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), the growth and maturation of several follicles (hence the name phase – follicular). Follicle can be thought of as the cell container eggs. Egg stored in the follicle is protected and nurtured and prepared for fertilization).

Furthermore, at this stage, to a significant degree form the hormone estrogen. Estrogens have many functions, one of the key is to stimulate growth of the endometrium. The growth of the endometrium is essential for potential implantation. Mid cycle occurs on the fourteenth day under the influence of LH for ovulation, therefore the rupture usually one dominant follicle, called the Graafian follicle.

The phase which follows the main rupture of the follicle is called ovulation. The egg is released from the follicle into the abdominal cavity, it is sucked through the tube and it is further transported to the uterus. It is in the fallopian tube, and occurs most often in the most ideal case forfertilization. The entire story takes place about 14 days after the beginning of the menstrual cycle and lasts up to 48 hours. Signs that a woman ovulates is increased body temperature and by about 10C.

After ovulation occurs 15 to 26 on the third day of the cycle – luteal (translation yellow phase is associated with the formation of the corpus luteum. Corpus luteum is formed in the ovary from a ruptured follicle cells). The luteal phase begins rising levels of the hormone progesterone, whose main task is to prepare and maintain a pregnancy.

Progesterone is produced precisely by cells of the corpus luteum. The hormone also leads to maturation of the endometrium to be able to accept the fertilized egg. If no fertilization, the corpus luteum ceases, decreases hormone levels and leads to last – menstrual phase, 27 to 28 day when the uterine lining along with neoplozeným egg washed away by menstrual blood.

The causes of female infertility are varied, always that depends on the interplay of several mechanisms to make things work. If even just one part breaks, does not work as it should, the whole system does not work.

We have already indicated that the egg travels from the ovary to the fallopian tube, where it should be fertilized, egg travels from the fallopian tube into the uterus, where if it is fertilized, nest and begins developing fetus. To prevent abortion or risk of infection, it is concluded uterus specifically cervix mucus plug, which serves as a stopper against infection. On the contrary, the sperm must travel the path from the vagina, through the cervix, the entire uterus to the fallopian tube, where they met with an egg.

And on this path may be in a woman’s body several obstacles that prevented the meeting of male and female sex cells, thus preventing fertilization. So where particular problems can occur and what? We discuss here part at the female genital tract and focus on possible problems that could lead to infertility.

Ovary, ovaries – There may be correct function is impaired altered levels of hormones – follicle-stimulating and luteinizing. Due to the cease mature follicles and the result is that the ripe egg is released or even get a chance to mature. So there is no ovulation. (Among other things, to “block ovulation” is based preparations hormonal contraception.)

Fallopian tubes – provide transport eggs released at ovulation or a fertilized egg, which here meets the sperm into the uterus. So it is necessary tubal patency and functional mechanisms involved in the transport. Possible reasons for closure are: developmental abnormalities, tumors, damage during examinations and surgeries, endometriosis – see below, appendicitis – appendicitis and post inflammatory closures that occur during long-term effects of inflammation (sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma infections, mixed infections ).

Tissue was ceased after the inflammation so-called zajizví, which can cause either partial or complete closure of the fallopian tube. Sperm and have a chance to get to the egg, or if it gets and fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg gets to the uterus and can cause it to nestle within the fallopian tube. That is one possibility of ectopic pregnancy, tubal specifically its forms. Tubal because the fallopian tube is a Latin term uterine tube.

Uterus – The uterus, the egg and then to develop a new individual. The uterus may be affected by several disturbances, such as congenital defects (aplasia – undeveloped uterus, impaired development of uterine disorder throughput), uterine myoma, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells, Asherman’s syndrome – adhesions inside the uterus due medical intrauterine procedure, possibly polyps can occur on the lining of the uterus.

In connection with the uterus, it is worth mentioning the disease, which is called endometriosis. It is a disease that is caused by the occurrence of endometrial (lining of the uterus) outside the uterine cavity. Bearings pathological mucosa may occur anywhere in the body, such as in the abdominal cavity. These bearings are subject to the same cyclic changes as the endometrium within the uterus, and may act for example, adhesions in the abdominal cavity, tubal occlusion, impaired follicular development.

Cervix – may also be affected by developmental disabilities. It is also important to the quality of mucus that is present in the suppository. Its composition may in fact be too dense and sperm so they can have a more difficult passage into the uterus and then into the fallopian tubes. This is the second mechanism of hormonal contraception that deliberately causes mucus to thicken.

Furthermore, regardless of the anatomic adaptation may occur in two other causes of infertility. The first is the so-called immunological intolerance of sex cells – both their own and the opposite sex cells. The immune system produces antibodies against women and sperm are those that degraded and unable to fulfill the function of fertilization.

It is also possible variant, the woman does not conceive the problem, but the problem has to carry a fetus. Then we talk about increased potrácivosti. It is a process involving a number of factors and is often difficult to determine with precision what particular for this situation may be. Of the causes of genetic disorders can appoint an egg, his various defects caused by pathology in the mother’s body, as it should be changed or endometrial pathology, maternal morbidity, the external environment and so forth.

 

Risk factors for infertility in women

Here, under the risk factors are discussed more factors that affect fertility. It is clear that extremes will lead to reduced or lost fecundation

Age – this is the most important factor affecting female fertility. Optimum fertility is between 20 to 30 years. But preferably around 25th year. After the thirtieth year of life, fertility starts to decline slowly, for the 35th year of life has been declining steeply.

With age, however, increasing complications that threaten the fertility of women – decreasing the number of menstrual cycles in which ovulation will occur and occur uterine abnormalities (fibroids, changes in the vascular system pathology endometrium, etc.) decreases sexual activity, increased incidence of spontaneous abortions, because the genetic material passed elderly mother is so perfect and there is a series of defects and pathological changes. Increased the risk of having a miscarriage in older age.

Sexual activity – for pregnancy is the necessity of sexual intercourse at least 2-3 times a week,is contingent on a limited lifespan eggs. Egg fertilization is capable of roughly 24 to 48 hours after release from the follicle. It seems simple, but it is difficult to determine the precise day when ovulation has occurred.

Negative influences of the external environment – they also have some effect on the reproductive capacity of women. Contamination from heavy metals: mercury, cadmium, manganese, lead, chromium, further radiation, smoking, drugs, whether light or hard liquor.

Psychosocial factors – stress, mental overwork, nervous exhaustion.

Nutrition – particularly extreme conditions of nutrition, such as malnutrition, obesity, or vice versa.Both lead to fertility disorders. In malnutrition is a rescue response due to the repeated loss of blood during menstruation. For obesity to hormonal imbalance, women have large amounts of estrogen (in connection with a large inventory of subcutaneous fat) and it prevents pregnancy.

Genetics – can be both a cause difficulty conceiving or donošením child and can cause a variety of serious congenital malformations of the child.

Overall diseases or disorders associated with female reproductive system – problems that can form any diseases that affect the entire body – for example, diabetes, cancer, thyroid disease, cystic ovary syndrome and the like.

 

Prevention of female infertility

If you want a child, you need not put off into the distant future. Biological clocks are not just a joke or innuendo, it’s a fact. And that’s ticking, many women find until then, if late. In the case of efforts to get a child requires frequent sexual activity. It is necessary to avoid the risk factors such as alcohol, smoking, drugs, poor composition of food and so on.

 

Symptoms of female infertility

There is only one symptom of a fairly clear – woman, despite all efforts to conceive and not medical assessment was evaluated as healthy partner.

 

Treatment of female infertility

The therapy depends on the cause of infertility. If the infertility is due to hormonal imbalance, it can be treated by administration of hormonal preparations according to the doctor’s recommendation.

In the event that a hormonal disorder caused by obesity, it is strongly recommended to reduce the weight – and a relatively large part.

If the cause of infertility mechanical closure of the fallopian tubes, or there is a problem in the immunity generated against a father or their own sexual cells or there is a problem in the implantation of the egg in the uterus, there is the possibility of “artificial insemination”, medically known as in vivo fertilization (fertilization = fertilization, in = vivo in laboratory conditions). An abbreviated version – this method involves removal of reproductive cells, both male and female, and in laboratory conditions, mostly under the microscope is made by joining the two cells (after merging egg and sperm created embryonic zygote). Zygote is recovered (implanted) back into the mother’s body, which leads to the next, natural evolution and pregnancy.

Mostly removes more cells as well as more cells are fertilized because the laboratory conditions at maximum perfection never reach the quality of the natural environment, multiple sampling increases the likelihood of success.

Therapy is like the entire issue of a difficult and complex, always varies from case to case, or must heed the counsel of a doctor because he only really knows what the problem is and what are the options for its removal.

 

How do I help myself

Avoid risk factors and delaying posterity “for later”. In the event that the latter is satisfied everything and still can not get pregnant, you need to see a doctor, and exactly follow his advice and adhere to treatment. Remove from everyday life stress, to introduce regularity into it, time to relax and mental hygiene.

 

Complications of infertility in women

Infertility itself is quite considerable complications either other primary diseases, or as itself.

Other Names: sterility, infertility, female infertility, female infertility

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