Description impetigo

Impetigo is usually not serious infectious diseases, whose name comes from the Latin impetere,which means attack. Mainly affects infants and children of preschool and school age, is no exception occurrence in adults, usually mothers of the infected children, the disease is highly contagious.

Originator are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus (aureus, often even dangerous methicillin-resistant SA- referred to as MRSA), and Streptococcus (pyogenes). Normally, the skin forms a sufficiently strong barrier against pathogenic and other bacteria on its surface and in its vicinity, butin some way damaged skin barrier is broken and the input of the bacteria is facilitated. The possibility of damage are different, there might be bitten by animals, insects and humans, or any other trauma to the skin, cuts or scratches. Blow the bacteria get into the deeper structures of the skin, where they grow and proliferate, causing inflammation and soon all the typical symptoms such as redness, pain, zteplání, itching and swelling.

In some cases, impetigo can occur on healthy, intact skin.

Impetigo is a highly contagious, transmitted fluid flowing from blisters. It spreads very easily, especially in children’s collectives, adults often suffer from impetigo after suffering minor illnesses such as cold and flu. Only rarely is a serious disease and usually heals within a few weeks. Due to potential complications, it is important nevertheless to visit a physician who deploys according to the severity and extent of the deposit appropriate treatment.

Disease impetigo gave its name to the situation when some originally non-infectious itchy skin disease patients intensively scratching or otherwise damaging and thus breach may soon entered staph or strep infection in open wounds. This process is called impetiginizace.

prevention of impetigo

Important is adherence to basic hygiene habits in groups as small children in kindergartens.Impetigo spreads here very quickly, and therefore need increased vigilance. It is importantnepůjčovat among themselves, towels or clothing, as well as other hygiene aids such as razor blades and so on within the family or friends. In an environment that we know that there impetigo occurs or occurred, it is good to pay attention to all the scratches and minor injuries, and in time it is disinfected and use antibacterial soap.

If you already have a child or adult is infected, it is necessary after each bath to a new, clean towel, and after each contact with the bearing of a good wash your hands to prevent the further spread of the disease.

Risk factors

The main risk factor is age patients. By far the most frequently developed disease in young children. Children are more susceptible because of their immune systems are not yet sufficiently mature, and their bodies are so infections generally more vulnerable. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections are also very possibly spreading in the community, so the kindergarten as an ideal environment for bacteria.
Another risk factor is contact with an infected not only direct but also contact with his towel, clothing or other objects. Bacteria also thrive in humid and warm conditions, so it is by far the most common in the summer months. The risk is also given to the contact sports in adults, such as rugby. Other ongoing chronic skin disease such as atopic eczema, is also at risk of developing impetigo. The danger is increased even in persons with chronic metabolic diseases such asdiabetes mellitus and disorders in which decreased function of the immune system, especially where there echtyma, the most serious form of impetigo.

Signs and symptoms of impetigo

Impetigo exists in two forms: bullous and nebulózní. Bull is the designation for a large blister with a diameter of five millimeters.

contagious impetigo

The so-called impetigo contagiosa (contagious impetigo) is the most common form of manifesting initially as reddish sore on the face, often on the nose or mouth. Sore soon burst and discharged either fluid or pus, and soon created a buff-colored crust that after the disappearance leaves a red stain, which usually heals without scarring. Lesions may itch, but usually does not hurt. This species is usually accompanied by other problems such as fever, however, is frequent reactions such asswelling of the relevant lymph nodes.

In more severe cases, blisters can be painful and vary in deep ulcers that may even leave a scar after healing.

bullous impetigo

Another form of impetigo, bullous called, usually affects very young children, usually aged up to two years. Creates a non-painful fluid-filled blisters on the trunk, arms and legs, localization is thus different from the classical infectious impetigo. Skin around the blisters and bulls is red and itchy. Blisters are greater and longer lasting than with other types of impetigo.


Echtyma is the most serious form of impetigo. It gets into the deep layers of the skin to the dermis. The symptoms are very painful fluid or pus-filled blisters usually running into deep ulcers on the legs and feet. After breaking blisters forming a very rigid and solid gray-yellow crust and often heal scars. And there are regional lymph nodes swollen.

Sometimes impetigo may manifest as folliculitis, impetigo which is a hair follicle caused by Staphylococci.

Streptococcus vs. staphylococcus

According to the appearance of blisters can distinguish infections caused by different types of bacteria: streptococcus with blistering smaller, more numerous and yellowish, with staphylococcal are larger with a greenish content. Methicillin also in the areas of disability release their toxins, which further contribute to deterioration and damage around the tissue and the bearing still increasing.

Overall difficulties, such as fever or increased tiredness are at impetigo rare, most problems are only localized.

The diagnosis of impetigo

The disease is usually possible to diagnose by looking at the nature of the lesions. Sometimes, with ambiguous expressions, it is necessary to remove a bit of pus or fluid from blisters and cultivate bacteria. From the grown colonies can then determine what kind of illness caused specifically. According to the doctor can then proceed and deploy the appropriate functioning antibiotics.

treatment of impetigo

The aim is primarily to stop the spread of infection, destroy it and relieve symptoms and speed healing of the skin. Treatment depends both on the type of disease and on the extent of disability.It is important mostly consistently taken care by the physician sometimes simply recommend frequent cleaning of the wound with antibacterial soap, which is sufficient to cure early bearing.In other cases the doctor will prescribe local antibiotics, thus various antibiotic ointments to the patient on the affected area is applied at various intervals. Before the application it is necessary to remove scabs antibiotic to better penetrate into the wound. Crusts and scabs are removed salicylic acid, which is very well effective keratolytics (= capable of removing corneum).

More serious infections require oral (ie oral) antibiotics in the form of powders. The child is usually within a team can come back as soon as you cease to be contagious, ie after one day of taking antibiotics, even though bearings are not yet fully healed.

What can I do myself

If you already erupted impetigo in humans, it is necessary to improve hygiene, use antibacterial soap and see a doctor. Furthermore, do not allow others to come into contact with, for example, his clothing or a towel. If impetigo appears in men beard or women on the feet, it is appropriate to shave the affected area to prevent further spread of infection razor or razor blade.

complications of impetigo

Complications are not usually not serious, the main complication is mainly flat expansion bearingsand other parts of the body during a carelessness excessively and inappropriately touching the lesions. In rare cases, can cause scarring of wounds, permanent impairment of the skin and skin pigmentation changes manifesting as her brighten or darken.

Rare is poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, or kidney inflammation. Antibodies are stored in increased renal glomeruli. Most people get the disease very early, but some of them may develop up picture of renal failure. It usually develops in young children up to ten years, several weeks after infection. Symptoms of kidney failure include facial swelling, decreased production of urine, blood in urine, high blood pressure and pain and stiffness.

When impetigo caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus threatens all sorts of danger due to the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and a series of difficult treatment. In rare and severe cases can be life-threatening condition.

Other names: streptococcal infections, staphylococcal infections, Chrásta, superficial pyoderma

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