Impaired immunity


Impaired immunity

Description immune disorders

Immunodeficiency is a disorder of immunity, impaired immunity organ-ism, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections. Immunodeficiency we divide into different categories – either by causes (primary and secondary immunodeficiency) or the affected part of the immune system (specific and nonspecific immune deficiency).

The immune system of a healthy person is very important because it can distinguish between the cells of the organism and cells that are alien therein. Is represented mainly by white blood cells (leukocytes), then the immune organs – thymus (thymus), lymph nodes … Every cell of the body is labeled with certain substances so that the immune cells recognizable. If the organism does not (e.g. Different types of microorganisms), carries on its surface other substances (antigens), which white blood cells recognize as foreign to the body and destroy that cell is potentially dangerous.Another case can then be modified tumor cell, in which there is also a change in the identification of surface materials. Her fate is the same – it is destroyed.

Immune mechanisms can be divided into two types – immunity to specific and non-specific.

specific immunity

It is represented by lymphocytes which form nepočetnější type of white blood cells (leukocytes).Lymphocytes further divided into B – lymphocytes and T – lymphocytes and normal idle remain in lymphoid tissues (e.g. lymph nodes). But if the body gets a foreign body material (indicated by an antigen) that is recognized by macrophages. Macrophages are another type of immune cells that circulate in the blood and virtually probing neighboring cells are correctly identified and belong to the body. At the moment macrophage cell encounters a foreign body – like the cell of a microorganism – absorb it and use the mechanisms available to it, destroy it. When this cell is destroyed, exposing macrophage substances on its surface, which determined that the cell does not belong to the body. At this moment macrophage then travels to the lymphoid tissues where they are B and T – lymphocytes. Macrophage shows them foreign substances and lymphocytes are activated.B – lymphocyte begins to produce antibodies against a foreign substance. Some B – lymphocytes produce antibodies, but changes to the memory cell which upon eventual meeting with the same foreign substance in future begins producing antibodies immediately and thus a reaction of destruction of foreign substances faster and more efficient. Antibodies that B – lymphocytes produce highly specific compounds of protein nature that acts only against the substance to which they were produced.

Innate immunity

Innate immunity then form various barriers that prevent entry of microorganisms into the body. For example it is the skin that forms a mechanical barrier, further hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which thanks to its very low pH destroys the cell walls of micro-organisms and they will disappear.Mechanisms of innate immunity is the large number.

Primary immune disorders

Primary immunodeficiencies are rare, usually congenital disorders. Most of them are inherited in an autosomal recessive. The most common primary immunodeficiency is an antibody deficiency (accounting for 70% of all primary immunodeficiencies). When contacting the antigen with B – cells prevents the production of antibodies and thus of the organism against foreign microorganisms can not effectively resist. Among the humoral immunodeficiency include X-linked agammaglobulinemia, in which patients are protected only by antibodies acquired during pregnancy from mother or variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Another example of primary immunodeficiency is the situation when all the parts of the immune system functioning normally, but they have reduced susceptibility to infektům, which means that if macrophages in the body find foreign cells, not on it somehow react and this can then be in the body without any barriers multiply. Because it is one of the primary immunodeficiency rare diseases in our population (the incidence is 20 per 10,000 births) is often misunderstood or diagnosed late.

Secondary immune disorders

Secondary immunodeficiency is caused by defects of the immune mechanisms that are caused only during life. They are much more common than primary. The most famous secondary immunodeficiency is AIDS, but in our population are more common these immunodeficiency due to other causes. One of them must be a protein – calorie malnutrition (e.g. anorexia), nephrotic syndrome, or perhaps diabetes (diabetes mellitus).

Risk factors for immune disorders

Risk factors are actually de facto only secondary immunodeficiencies. This includes unprotected sexual intercourse when you can get HIV. Another risk factor is the lack of nutrition, which is directly related underweight (BMI under 20). With this condition is seen in a variety of metabolic disorders in the elderly or in patients anorexia nervosa. In secondary immunodeficiency may result and nephrotic syndrome or diabetes mellitus. This risk could be even vaccinate infants against tuberculosis.

Prevention of immune disorders

Against primary immunodeficiency no precaution because it is a disease with which are already born. People who have imunideficienci should therefore be avoided environment in which they can easily infect an infectious disease (e.g., in times of increased incidence of colds should not seek contact with infected people and the like).

Prevention of secondary immunodeficiency is much better, because they can obtain něterými steps affect. It is therefore important proper and adequate nutrition as prevention of malnutrition (malnutrition). It is also useful to know your blood sugar (blood glucose determination – koncentrce blood glucose) to make it clear that we are at risk of diabetes (diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2). One preventive measure is also safe sexual intercourse, when mechanical protection (condom). For safe sex can not be considered to protect hormonal contraceptives or any other substitution treatment.Patients face a huge surgical procedures are administered preventive antibiotics (usually during an operation at the site of inflammation). But the operation would be carried out particularly in time of full health when the risk of purulent and poorly healing wounds lower.

Symptoms of immune disorders

Symptoms immunodeficiency picked at different ages – by the difficulties of the disease (primary usually earlier) – and the time of onset is an important diagnostic factor. In severe immune deficiency at the first symptoms appear soon after birth when the child ceases to be protected by maternal antibodies, and should have its own produce antibodies, which will not happen. In this case, the first manifestation of festering rejection umbilical cord (omfalitida) – its symptoms are nejrůzněšího kind of infection – infection of the middle ear (otitis), inflammation bradavkovitého process (mastoid process) on the head (mastoiditis), pneumonia (pneumonia) and others.

These symptoms are similar to the symptoms of antibody immunodeficiency – as with them may be present otitis, pneumonia and mastoiditis, then frequent bronchitis (bronchitis), recurrent urogenital infections, diarrheal diseases, and others.

Treatment of immune disorders

So that the disease was correctly treated, it is necessary to undergo examinations that its existence will be confirmed or disproved. If you suspect that the fetus might suffer from primary immunodeficiency, it is being investigated prenatal diagnosis. When it is removed the amniotic fluid of the mother’s body and a variety of methods to determine if the DNA contained in the cells in the amniotic fluid is healthy or mutant. In the event that errors are found in DNA (mutations), the physician may předpovědětt how big handicap individual will have after birth. Patients who demonstrated a primary immunodeficiency, are then registered in the Czech register, which is connected to a worldwide network ESID (European Society for Immunodeficiences – www.esid.org ).A further examination can then blood counts which are counted individual types of cells in the blood.Their normal values are precisely defined and the various deviations from normal numbers indicate various kinds of diseases, including immune deficiency. Finally, from the collected blood and investigating protein electrophoresis. It is the examination, the blood proteins migrate electrophoretically plate in an electric field at a certain speed. It is jednostlivé protein fractions identified as normal. But if some fraction goes faster or slower, it is again a symptom of various diseases – sort faction.

Primary immunodeficiencies are genetic, and yet it can not be cured. Replacement therapy but can mitigate their impact. Therefore administered antibodies (immunoglobulins, Ig) usually in a dose of up to 1 gram per kilogram of body weight per month. The method of administration is intravenous. In this method of treatment the patient regularly occurs on the necessary application.Antibodies which patient administered, they are produced from human plasma of healthy individuals.

How can I help myself?

If you already have this disease, it is very important to accurately follow the doctor’s advice andattend regular applications of immunoglobulins. Your health but can promote healthy nutrition, physical activity or need a balanced daily routine (remember during the day to relax, not to be stressed etc.).

Complications immune disorders

Since in immunodeficiency Without enough antibodies or has a reduced susceptibility to antigens, it is possible to obtain practically any infectious diseases – bronchitis through pneumonia to various inflammations. These diseases may according to its kind, and always complicate bring patient deterioration. In some cases, it may even death, but it depends on the specific type of infection.

Other names: immunodeficiency, impaired immunity, primary immunodeficiency, secondary immunodeficiency, immunodeficiency specific, nonspecific immune deficiency, congenital immune disorders, decreased immunity, X-linked agamaglubulinemie, going vyriabilní immunodeficiency, CVID

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