Description hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a disease where the thyroid gland does not produce sufficient quantities of hormones.

This disease is now fairly common disease that affects especiallywomen. In the Czech Republic suffer from approximately 15-20% of women aged around fifty years old, but appears even younger.

In this disease can be thyroid enlarged, but in most cases was smaller than normally.


causes of hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism causes may be several. Most often it is caused byautoaggressive Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an inflammatory disorder, which involves the formation of antibodies which deplete its own thyroid gland.

Previously, it was the main cause of hypothyroidism long-termiodine deficiency, which could be seen even on the birth of a child (cretinism). Nowadays, however, in most states, the issue on the decline, thanks to the accessibility of seafood, Iodization salt water and toothpaste.

Another cause is thyroidectomy (surgical removal of the thyroid gland) or treatment with radioactive iodine, which is performed mainly in oncological diseases.

Hypothyroidism can also occur for several years after treatment, it is important that patients be monitored for long-term physician.

Less frequent reasons are: congenital hypothyroidism, cancer or renal agenesis (undeveloped) thyroid or increased intakestrumigens (substances that hinder the production of thyroid hormones) food or drugs.

The above-described cause are called primary. As secondary, refers to decreased production of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormone and is formed in the hypophysis (pituitary gland).


Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism

Thyroid hormones affect many tissues and organs in the body, resulting in diverse symptoms.

At first, the disease develops gradually and majority of problems are only a few characteristic (fatigue, constipation, dry skin) and to a certain extent, are determined and the current health status and age of the patient.

If the disease is fully developed, there will be some additional symptoms and give the typical picture of hypothyroidism.
The lack of thyroid hormone causes reduced oxygen consumption, resulting in the overall deceleration of the body. The patient is tired, sleepy, moves slowly and quickly runs out. Suffer from cold feet and hands, often he complains that he is cold, goes much wear and requires a warm environment.

Also slows the metabolism and peristalsis (movement) of the intestines, therefore is often present even constipation and in more severe cases, to intestinal obstruction and megacolon formation (extension intestine). Patients may gain weight, mainly because their body retains fluids that accumulate mainly in the lower limbs, causing leakage of rigid skins (myxedema). Reflex Achilles tendon is severely retarded.

Hypothyroidism is also reflected in very dry, flaky skin that can cause a yellowish tint. Nails are frayed, thick, but still Fracture and grow very slowly, like hair, beard and hair. The patient often notices that sticks less than usual for him. Patient, to a greater extent, fall hair, and later, in some cases, can lead to alopecia (baldness) and even hair eyebrows, the outer side faces.

The patient often occurs to coarsening voice and hoarseness. Language is smooth and enlarged (macroglossia), which prevented the correct pronunciation.
Changes are, unfortunately, also on the face. The face is stiff, swollen and yellowish. The eyes have soaked up swollen eyelids.

The patient often feels strong, short-term, but repeated heart beat (palpitations), a significantlyslower heart rate and high blood pressure (hypertension).

Women tend to have irregular menstrual cyklu- less frequent menstruation (oligomenorrhea), amenorrhea (amenorrhea), prolonged and heavy menstrual periods (menorrhagia) or cycles during which no egg is released (anovulatory cycles). However, in more serious cases, the woman is unable to carry a child and give birth to viable (ifertilita).

The above changes and especially the aesthetic, not on the psyche of the patient and the positive impact these patients, yet it often suffer from depressive syndromes.
It should be noted that this disease progresses slowly and was initially not as pronounced symptoms, so they are often sick notes at a later stage.


Risk factors for hypothyroidism

Risk of developing hypothyroidism is greater in people who have a family or personal history of thyroid disease or radiotherapy, the neck or upper chest.

The risk groups include people who suffer from autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia or celiac disease.

Furthermore, women older than fifty years old and pregnant in the first trimester.


treatment of hypothyroidism

For proper treatment it is necessary to perform tests that will confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity and disease. The doctor must determine the incidence of thyroid disorders in a patient or his family. Further interest will not suffer if the patient any autoimmune disease, or if he has not done in the past, radiotherapy to the neck or upper chest.

The doctor then Palpating thyroid to determine its shape and size. After a blood test, which detects potential value of hormones and antibodies against the thyroid gland. Furthermore, it is at least an ultrasound and, in rare cases, a biopsy of the thyroid gland.

After proper inspection followed a lifelong therapy, which is based, is the delivery of an appropriatedose of the missing hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine and trijodtyroxinu).Medication must be taken according to the prescription and regularly lead to controls (usually once every 2-6 months) to allow, according to established hormone levels medicines properly dosed.

Medicines for hypothyroidism, are mostly used separately from the others and fasted for about 30 minutes before meals to allow proper absorption.


How can I help myself

If you suffer from this disease, just make sure your doctor’s instructions because the correct cooperation here in the first place. It is important to adhere to the terms of controls and guidelines regarding the use of medications.

In their diet, keep a diet rich in iodine (found mainly in seafood and algae) at least once a week. It is also possible, after consultation with the doctor, taking additional medication containing iodine.

On the contrary, it is recommended to avoid, excessive consumption of foods that contain substances that can narušovatprodukci thyroid hormones, such as: brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi. But if you eat these vegetables to a reasonable extent, it is not harmful.

Your diet should contain the least amount of animal fats, which can be replaced by plant.

Furthermore, if possible, avoid excessive physical and mental stress.


Preventing hypothyroidism

It is difficult, but observe, at least above board.
The success of treatment plays an important role in early diagnosis, therefore underestimate the symptoms and see a doctor in time.


complications hypothyroidism

In this disease, it is secondarily increased cholesterol and other lipids (fats) in the blood. There is therefore the risk of atherosclerosis and consequently diseases in which atherosclerosis involved.

In rare cases, constipation can worsen and lead to the formation of intestinal obstruction(ileózním states) and megacolon (extension of the intestine).

Complications can occur during improper treatment when served larger dose of thyroid hormone than necessary. In this case, may develop osteoporosis.

Another complication is the hypothyroidism in women trying to conceive. Sometimes, that when the disease is often difficult and, in rare cases, it is not possible at all.

In pregnant women, early diagnosis and treatment is very important. For the development of the fetus, the appropriate dose needed, especially in the first weeks of pregnancy, otherwise, damage psychomotor development of the fetus.

Other names: hypothyroidism, decreased thyroid function, decreased production of thyroid hormones, underactive thyroid, myxedema, hypothyroidism

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