Description of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a relatively common disorder in which thethyroid gland produces more hormones (thyroxine andtrijodtyroxinu) than the body needs.

The disease affects roughly 2% of the adult population and more women than men.

In this disease in most cases is obvious thyroid enlargement. If there is an abrupt deepening manifestations of the disease, the condition is called thyrotoxic crisis. Causes of hyperthyroidism may be few and influence as well as the severity of the disease and its treatment.


causes of hyperthyroidism

This disease has three main causes of its origin.

Firstly, it is Basedow (also called Graves’) disease. It is anautoimmune disorder where the immune system begins to generate specific antibodies that stimulate the thyroid to higher activities. This cause is also called “diffuse toxic goiter with exophthalmos” because of her speech (described below).

The second cause is a toxic nodular goiter. Nodular goiter, is a situation where the thyroid is enlarged and are present in thenodes (adenomas), but its function is not impaired. But sometimes resting nodules become active and cause increased hormonal activity. The exact causes of this change are not yet fully known.

The third reason is referred to as exogenous drug hyperthyroidism, but that is a relatively rare cause. Caused by high doses of thyroid hormones administered for therapeutic reasons. It is therefore often of overdose and in treating hypothyroidism.

Increased thyroid function may occur with acute or chronic autoimmune inflammation, but this situation is only temporary.


Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism

Symptoms of the disease are dependent upon the age, health condition of the patient and the amount of thyroid hormone. Hormones here has some sort of overall acceleration of the organism. Generally we can say that the elderly are less noticeable.

Sick sometimes suffer very rapid changes and mood disorders. Often tends to euphoric mood. It is restless, nervous, anxious to tearful, very badly concentrates and sometimes makes unnecessary, involuntary movements.

Suffer from sleep disorders and is tired. In conversation with this man, you notice that speaks rapidly, has to feel hyperactive and his voice may skip.

Patients usually suffer from diarrhea, which is a consequence of accelerated intestinal activity.Despite increased appetite, lose weight.

People with this disease does not tolerate warm environments, often complain of feeling hot.Their skin is hot, sweaty and flushed.

Dermographism also been described, which is a condition where under the effect of a blunt object on the skin, there will be significant whitening, making it possible for the skin as if “write”. On the skin may occur and the white spots (vitiligo) lacking the natural pigment.

Sick indicates accelerated and increased hair growth. Increasingly his hair fall out, which are frayed and Fracture. Fingernails have impaired quality are Fracture and grooved. It can be found eyebrow hair from the outer side of the face.

On the face you can sometimes see flashes redness. Language patient is smooth and noticeably red.

If the cause of the disease Grave’s disease, is also present exophtalmus (vystoupnutí eye from the orbit), which can be so pronounced that the patient is not able to sleep, completely close the eyelids. Exophtalmus is caused by increased tissue behind the eyeball. Sick often describes the feeling as if he had sand under the eyelids.
Sometimes there is even double vision and increased sensitivity to light. Is evident increased shine eyes, decreased frequency of blinking and tearing.

Trimmings, are significant swelling (edema).

A common symptom is muscle adynamie, or muscle weakness that may cause the patient considerable difficulty in climbing stairs or getting up from a crouching position. It occurs mainly on the muscles in the buttocks and thighs. At hand is visible and easy to palpate gentle shaking.

Sick has accelerated heartbeat and often complain of unpleasant and strong heartbeat called .:palpitations. There are frequent disturbances in heart rhythm (paroxysmal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation). Blood pressure is high and the range between the upper and lower value is great.

For women, there may be disturbance of the menstrual cycle, such as less frequent menstruation (oligomenorrhea) or disappearance of menstruation (amenorrhea). In pregnancy, the greater the tendency to abortion and therefore is in its correct course of treatment is necessary.


Risk factors for hyperthyroidism

Risk of developing hypothyroidism is greater in people who have a family or personal history of thyroid disease.

For high-risk group are considered and women over fifty years. For those who have a goiter(enlarged thyroid gland), hyperthyroidism occurs much more frequently.

Not to be underestimated presence of autoimmune diseases such as diabetes or celiac disease.


treatment of hyperthyroidism

Proper treatment depends on the cause, which causes the disease. In the event that hyperthyroidism is a consequence of inflammation, simply treat symptoms of the disease since increased function is only temporary, and after zaléčení again returns to the normal state.

A significant role is played by the resting therapy, the patient avoids increased mental and physical exertion. It is not recommended to drink alcohol, black coffee, steam bath and sunbathing.

If the cause of the disease Grave’s disease, a pharmacological treatment is initiated nezbytná.Léčba higher doses of antithyroid drugs that are gradually being reduced, depending on the condition of the patient and laboratory tests. If necessary, initially joined by medications calledbeta blockers. Normalize thyroid function can be expected in 2-3 months. However, treatment must be observed for at least 12-18 months.

If you fail to cope with the disease only through medication, it is necessary to proceed to surgical treatment, consisting in the removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy). After this performance, completely missing thyroid hormones and it needs replacing, then a lifetime.

For this procedure, it is necessary to think of the person with diabetes type I, or another autoimmune disease in patients with excessive goiter, women contemplating pregnancy, or in humans, where the expected term, excessive stress. After surgery can be a doctor prescribed spa treatment.

Sometimes therapy is performed with radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine is taken up by the thyroid gland, thereby its local irradiation. This therapy is relatively friendly alternative operation, however, is completely unsuitable for pregnant women.

For proper diagnosis and treatment of the patient must be properly investigated. The doctor will be interested to know whether the patient or his relatives, absent any malfunction of the thyroid gland.It is also important to know if the patient does not suffer from autoimmune disorders (diabetes, celiac disease) or if he has not done in the past, radiotherapy to the neck or upper chest.

Subsequently, the physician Palpating thyroid to determine its shape and size. Then it is necessary to perform blood tests to determine levels of hormones. And finally an ultrasound or biopsythyroid.


How can I help myself

If you have been diagnosed with this disease, avoid sun exposure, steam baths, consumption of black coffee and especially alcohol.

If you suffer from excessive sweating, wear natural, preferably cotton clothing that will not irritate your skin.

People who have eye problems as a result of this disease, should work together with your doctor to find them suitable eye drops or ointment and recommended them, wearing dark sunglasses.

Inappropriate is a large consumption of foods that contain iodine.
Try to relax as much as possible, avoid great physical and mental stress. Suitable as various relaxation techniques.

Allow the doctor to monitor the levels of thyroid hormones and thus also provide appropriate treatment, it is necessary to periodically attended on the appointed control. Success of treatment depends (largely) on your cooperation.


complications of hyperthyroidism

If in this disease is not increased thyroid initially, can occur with the use of drugs that are designed just for hyperfuncion thyroid.

After performing the treatment with radioactive iodine, even after several years of hypothyroidismmay occur.

In this disease is an increased risk of osteoporosis and paroxysmal fibrillation.

Other names: hyperfunction of the thyroid, hyperthyroidism, increased thyroid function, increased production of thyroid hormones, overactive thyroid gland, thyrotoxicosis, hyperthyroidism

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