High cholesterol

High cholesterol

Description of high cholesterol

Everyone is clear that the notion elevated or high cholesterol means that it would correctly cholesterol should be less. Most also knows that the cholesterol is found and measured in the blood.But what cholesterol is, what is the function and play if definitely a bad role in our body .. There are already some would perhaps grope. No wonder. In advertisements, cholesterol is presented only as an evil that must be reduced, if not the poison, which is our body is being poisoned.

The truth is different. Without cholesterol, we have not built a single cell in the body, not createvitamin D, bile acids, not produced steroid hormones (testosterone, estrogen ..) ..

On the other hand, cholesterol is stored in the vessel wall, the wall thus ceases to be flexible, there is a narrowing of the internal diameter (here may easily capture thrombus = blood clot), there is the risk that the body supplied with blood flowing from this “clogged” vessel will adequate blood supply and oxygen deficiency causes the necrosis (myocardial infarction principle – part of the heart, which is poorly supplied with blood, do not get enough oxygen dies, the heart does not work well).

It follows, therefore, that the body needed a certain amount of cholesterol. For the ideal amount is calculated value of total cholesterol less than 5.2 mmol / l. Above 6.2 mmol / l we are already talking about high cholesterol, meaning a significant risk of developing coronary heart disease (coronary = insufficient blood flow, a condition in which blood vessels are not bringing in the heart of the quantity of oxygenated blood, which for its proper operation requires it).

The value of total cholesterol is not the only nor the most important.
Much more of the patient reflects the value of the resultant ratio of HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol – HDL / total = more than 20% of the ideal.

HDL is a substance traditionally known as the “good” cholesterol (LDL = versus “bad”cholesterol). This designation is somewhat misleading, since then many believe that some of the food can take the good and the other evil. Cholesterol itself is only one. The body, first receives food, secondly, the body itself is produced (mainly in the liver). Cholesterol evil and good, however, does not distinguish the place of origin, but the carrier who befriends him. In fact our body cholesterol circulating on various carriers (lipoproteins). One carriers are predominantly fat – LDL (low density lipoprotein) – the bound cholesterol migrate to peripheral tissues where they can negatively affect cholesterol on vascular wall. In contrast, the carrier of HDL (high density lipoprotein) has a large proportion of the protein and carries excess cholesterol from arteries to the liver.

The ideal cholesterol from the blood test should therefore be:

total: below 5.2 (over 6.2 high risk) in children below 4.4 (over 5.5 high risk)

HDL chol: above 1.4 (under 0.9 high risk) in children over 1 (below 0.9 high risk)

LDL chol: below 3.4 (over 4.1 high risk) in children below 2.6 (over 3.1 high risk)


Risk factorshigh choesterol

Risk factors for high cholesterol in various proportions heredity and environmental factors.

It also demonstrated familial hypercholesterolemia, which is an autosomal dominant transmitted disease (if he gets a child from one parent set of genes sick, sick). The remaining high cholesterol diseases can argue to what extent hereditary and what influenced lifestyle (which often is also called. Socio hereditary .. – tradition).

So far, the speech called. Primary high cholesterol. High cholesterol but is sometimes measured as a consequence of some other underlying disease (mostly liver, kidney, thyroid, ..)


Preventing high cholesterol

Of the two major risk factors – heredity and lifestyle – can (for now) to modify only one. So prevention is adherence to healthy lifestyle. “Unfortunately,” high cholesterol does not hurt, and many patients taking the recommendations improving diet just like such good advice from a doctor to life. (As if the neighbor advise vitamin C during the flu ..), which they often backfire.

Good advice for the prevention of high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, therefore, a high risk of coronary artery disease, ie ..

  • watch your weight, let you design a suitable diet in case of obesity
  • watch your fat intake (should represent more than 30% of total energy)
    • received from fat to give more space vegetable and fish
  • cholesterol intake not to exceed 200 mg / day
  • receive higher amounts of fiber (30 g / day)
  • more consume fruits and vegetables (fiber, antioxidants)
  • reducing alcohol intake or eliminate it entirely
  • often classify fish and low fat dairy products
  • limit salt intake to 6 g / day


Signs and symptoms of high cholesterol

The big problem of high cholesterol is that it does not show. High cholesterol is more value than the disease. This number, however, it can inform you about the increased risk of CHD (coronary heart disease – Angina pectoris, myocardial infarction – the most common cause of death in the US).Therefore, the discovery of elevated values should not serve to scare the patient, but as useful information about the risk, which can then react and try to reduce it.

Disease high cholesterol thus provide an increased amount of cholesterol in the blood. The most dangerous consequence of a higher amount of cholesterol is its storage in blood vessels –atherosclerosis.

One form of high cholesterol is fully inheritable. Descendants who get bad equipment, which leads to a certain disease, high cholesterol, they can get from either one parent or both. In both cases, the ill (because it is a dominant disease). However descendants who got both wrong outfit are severely disabled since childhood. Coronary heart disease is they experience in early childhood and most of them die within 20 years (heart attack). Outward sign thus affected the creation of skinand tendon xanthomas (boule eg. On the knuckles).

In contrast, patients with impaired allele (poor equipment) from only one parent may not have any visible symptoms for many years.


Treatment of High Cholesterol

Treatment of the disease is due to the fact that the main risk is the development of cardiovascular disease (heart disease and blood vessels), focusing on all risk factors for the disease. So drugless treatment consists of lifestyle changes (see Disease Prevention):

  • smoking reduces the amount of “good” HDL – cholesterol, smoking is advised to leave
  • Obesity also increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • healthy diet aimed at reducing cholesterol intake
  • physical activity – (ideal activity when the heart rate ranges between 60-75% of maximum heart rate – which is calculated as 220 – age)
  • treatment blood pressure – high pressure loading cardiovascular diseases

For drug with cholesterol-lowering taking statins (lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastain), resins (cholestyramine and colestipol).


How can I help myself

.. Best compliance advice about diet. It is advisable to think about a healthy diet even when the elected method of preparing food – limit frying and baking, give priority cooking, steaming, stewing. Furthermore, there are lists of substances and foods with proven effect on reducing blood cholesterol levels:

  • stanols and sterols
  • roughage
  • unsaturated fatty acids
  • lecithin
  • artichoke, onion, lemon, garlic, beans, mushrooms, apples, flax (linseed bread), almonds, oats, fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, herring), rice, red wine, walnuts


Complications high cholesterol

Complications of high cholesterol is atherosclerosis, which increases risk.

Other names: hypercholesterolemia, high cholesterol, familial hypercholesterolemia

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