High blood pressure


High blood pressure

Description hypertension

Hypertension or high blood pressure, is one of the commonest cardiovascular diseases. This disease is nowadays mass market.According to statistics, the hypertension treated about 20% of adults. Although this number is already quite high and does not include people who suffer from hypertension while, but it is not a cure.

So often this disease called non-infectious epidemic, and often classified in the group of diseases of civilization. It is estimated that 25% of deaths over the age of 40 years is due to just the disease. One of the causes of these sad figures is the fact that in the early stages of hypertension has almost no symptoms and people who do not know about it or it simply ignored and left untreated is because it does not bother (at least for now).

For hypertension is when blood pressure is longer or repeatedly increased over the value of 140/90 mmHg in diabetics over 130/90 mmHg. Ideal for adults is considered pressure 120/80 mmHg.

The term blood pressure means the force exerted on the blood vessel wall in which it circulates.Blood pressure can be easily determined using a tonometer. When blood pressure measurement we obtain two values eg .: 120/80.

First, higher and more important number denotes systolic pressure which occurs when the heart beats. Systolic pressure is substantially a direct reflection of the state of the arteries. Its value is therefore generally rises with age because older people have less elastic artery walls, which are not able to so much “stretch” at a higher blood pressure.

The second lower value is recorded at relaxation of the heart muscle and is called diastolic pressure.

causes of hypertension

Based on the factors that cause this disease, we distinguish two types of hypertension.

First hypertension is primary (or even essential) that occurs in the majority of hypertensive patients (about 90%). Although this type is much more common causes are, unfortunately, even today, completely clarified.

Expected factors that cause obesity, excessive intake of salt diet, long-term and excessive stress,genetic predisposition, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and lack of exercise. The emergence of primary hypertension may contribute more of these factors simultaneously.

The second type of secondary hypertension, in which the cause is known. It is caused by another, underlying disease and accompanies it, as a secondary symptom. This occurs when the variousrenal or hormonal disorders such as renal artery narrowing .: or Conn’s Syndrome. Among this type of hypertension is also envisaged temporary increase in pressure during pregnancy or taking certain medications. Another cause may be a narrowing of the main arteries of the heart (the aorta).

Signs and symptoms of high blood pressure

In the initial stages of blood pressure is not increased. Sick so often without difficulty, and often they may not even know. Unfortunately, this is hypertension very tricky, because people, even if they know about it, she often do not pay attention at first, because she feels the health and clean, making the disease develops.

The first, vague symptoms may be headache, fatigue, sleep disorder. Difficulties worsen or usually first appears to the advanced stage of the disease, but which has as a result, there is some damage to various organs.

There are three stages of the disease.

The first is the patient usually without difficulty and the only sign of hypertension is measured high blood pressure, which is initially intermittent and later permanent.

The second stage is already characterized by atherosclerotic changes in the arteries. The left ventricle is increased as a result of a disproportionate load, in particular left heart. This flag prove thoracic echocardiography (ECHO), X-ray (X-ray) and electrocardiographic (ECG) examination.During examination of the fundus changes are evident in the form of angiopathy.

In the third stage they are already significantly damaged individual organs and leads to theirimpaired function. Arteries are due to hypertension affected atherosclerotic changes. Coronary artery disease often develops peripheral arteries of the legs, which in serious cases up to amputation of the affected leg.

At this stage, it may occur as a result of disease, bleeding into the brain and therefore a sudden stroke, which sometimes leads to varying degrees of damage to bodily functions or even to death.

Another affected organ is the heart. Hypertension causes coronary heart disease. It may therefore emerge shortness of breath, chest pain or palpitations.

Disability ocular vascular continues to deteriorate, creating eye neuroretinopatii and consequently leads to blindness.

They are damaged and kidney, nephrosclerosis arises gradually decreases and their function is to their failure or uremia.

It should be noted that if hypertension is treated well, so would the third stage of the disease should never happen.

In this disease can sometimes even cause the so-called .: hypertensive crisis. It is a condition in which the blood pressure suddenly increased above the value of 230/130 mmHg. A patient with this condition often suffer a big headache, cramps, nausea and often vomiting. This crisis may quickly disappear mostly, but when the patient should be hospitalized and promptly begin treatment, because there is an increased risk of heart attack or brain hemorrhage.

Risk factors for hypertension

The main risk factors for developing this disease is considered excessive consumption of salt and alcohol, lack of exercise, obesity, smoking and excessive stress.

The important role played by genetic predisposition.

treatment of hypertension

Advance should first be noted that the goal of treatment is to normalize blood pressure. Although nowadays there are many modern medicines against hypertension, but unfortunately it is not always been effectively treated, mainly due to non-compliance with the doctor’s instructions.

The first step in the therapeutic regimen measures. If the patient is overweight, it is appropriate to reduce it to a normal BMI (18,5-25). It is necessary to limit the intake of salt and to a maximum of 5 grams per 24 hours. It is important to also limit alcohol consumption. Its highest daily amount is 30 grams.

Pharmacological treatment (or drug) depends on the patient’s condition. If the patient is suffering from some other disease eg .: diabetes, it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible.

If the patient has a problem only in the form of self-hypertension drugs are generally administered to him only when systolic blood pressure exceeds 160 mmHg. The situation is similar with the target values to be achieved. In persons with diabetes, the doctor tries to keep the blood pressure below the upper limit of 130/80 mmHg in otherwise healthy people below 140/90 mmHg.

Medicaments administered in hypertension may be diuretics that promote fluid excretion from the body.

Other preparations are used, for example, from groups: beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, vasodilators or alpha-adrenergic blockers.

Monotherapy treatment is chosen if the patient is sufficient to submit only one formulation that suits him perfectly. If not enough just to one drug, followed by a so-called dual :: therapy when administered combination of two drugs of the above groups that mutually reinforce and complement their effects. If neither double combination will not bring the expected effect, followed by administration of three drugs at once, a triple combination.

How can I help myself

If you suffer from hypertension, it is primarily important to be treated under expert supervision and conscientiously abide by his instructions. Medical management take medication as you were prescribed, and not only when your blood pressure is not increased.

Things that you can do to yourself, but still enough. On their own can reduce a number of risk factors.

Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol, and if you are a smoker, stop smoking completely (at best) or at least drastically reduce the number of cigarettes smoked.

You could say that it constantly with increasing body weight, and increases blood pressure. So keep your weight within the range of BMI values 18,5-25. The possible weight reduction will help even regular walking, swimming, cycling or any other sport, performed reasonably. If you are not accustomed to physical activity, start with her rather gradually and slowly add.

Blood pressure affects stress. Nowadays it may be difficult to be constantly “in peace”, but if it is at all possible, avoid emotionally challenging situations and define a time to relax, which may take the form and your favorite activities.

In the diet, limit the amount of salt and fat. Unfortunately, the salt being present in most foods.So if you do not, you prefer to eat homemade food that you can prepare yourself and avoid salting.Instead of salt to flavor use herbs, mushrooms or other spice blends.

Limit consumption of smoked meats, salty cheeses, instant meals, crisps and savory pastries. There are salt substitutes, unfortunately, it should be noted that their taste is somewhat different, but you can gradually get used to them. Animal fats better replace the plant.

Avoid consumption of caffeine, therefore, particularly coffee, energy drinks, soft drinks and various types of teas Maté. Classic coffee can substitute decaffeinated coffee or MELT. Even in the selection of mineral waters caution, inappropriate are those that have a high sodium content.

Contrary to diet shift plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits. First, these food components are guaranteed free of salt, they give you the necessary nutrients and are useful in reducing body weight.

Although the list of inappropriate foods seem very large, do not worry, over time you get used to the changed diet and you will be able to say that you have done for your health maximum.

Complications of high blood pressure

Complications of the disease can be considered damage to organs and their functions in the third stage of hypertension. It is therefore an ischemic heart disease, especially heart failure, left and acute myocardial infarction.

Furthermore, a stroke, kidney failure, blindness, or peripheral arterial disease.

Other names: hypertension, primary hypertension, essential hypertension, secondary hypertension, arterial hypertension, hypertensive disease, the silent killer

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