Epiglottitis


Epiglottitis

Description epiglottitis

Acute epiglottitis among inflammation of the larynx. It’s suddenly occurring serious illness that, without timely medical intervention can lead to death by suffocation.

Affects epiglottis (epiglottis), a cartilaginous The plate is covered with mucous membrane located behind the root of the tongue. During swallowing closes the entry into the trachea and thereby prevents ingress of food and liquid into the airways.

In this disease, it is on the inflammation of edema, thus increases the lid off several times and acts as a mechanical obstruction of breathing, leading to the closure of the airways, may cause irritation or reflective downloading muscles of the larynx (laryngospasm) and lead to suffocation.

The disease occurs most often in the winter months and affects mainly young children aged 3-6 years. As the causative agent in children applies most bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type B.

It is not a rarity and disease incidence in adults. Here often applied by other bacteria, e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, etc.

For non-infectious causes for epiglottidu is very rarely applied direct Valves injuries or burns from hot drinks.

Currently epiglottitis incidence in children than in the past less. The reason is the introduction of regular immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type B in young children.

 

Risk factors epiglottitis

The disease occurs more often in the winter, so this period is one of the risk factors.

Risk group are children. Reason more frequent occurrence of disease in children is explained by the different anatomical arrangement of the airways in childhood, where the size of the size ratio epiglot airway greater than in adults, and thus the risk of developing the symptom in the inflammatory swelling larger. Also in this age of maturity compared to incompletely developed immune system, specifically a reduced ability to produce antibodies of the type IgG2a.

 

prevention of epiglottitis

The most effective prevention is vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b. In the Czech Republic was established in 2002 as a regular vaccination to vaccination schedule. It is free and is a part of. The hexa. The vaccine begins to complete 13 weeks of age. They give four doses of the vaccine. The second dose after the first month, the third month after the last second and fourth after half a year after the third dose. But not later than the 18th month of age.

 

Signs and symptoms of epiglottitis

They begin suddenly, rapidly deteriorate. Begin with unspecific symptoms such as upper respiratory tract infection. They are usually present high fever (above 38 ° C), child foundered.

The first symptom is usually biting sore throat and painful swallowing (odynophagia). Child because leak saliva, does not want to drink, even if the result of fever thirst, my mouth open, his tongue lightly.

For adults, the present pain radiating to the ear. Gradually begin to develop shortness of breath,difficulty breathing, first in the supine position. The child has pale skin is sweaty. Bigger kids can enforce the position of sitting, slightly bent, leaning on hands, preventing the haul they open mouth and jaw outpost. Babies lying on their backs zaklánějí head back, thus improving the flow of air through the airways.

When you inhale and exhale is srkavý to hear a gurgling sound loud. Child speaks softly,huhňavým monotone. Cough calling for his pain is not present. Child coughing slightly.

Overall, the child is remarkably quiet, do not cry because it causes pain. It is tired, disinterested (apathetic) and drowsiness due to insufficient supply of oxygen (hypoxia). There are frequent symptoms of sepsis.

Development of the disease is the course to dramatically fast. There is only choking closure of the airways, so even the slightest suspicion is needed immediately call for medical help.

Some of these symptoms can also be found in some angina, critical and warning sign but there is a pain in the neck associated with breathing problems.

 

treatment epiglottitis

As mentioned above, epiglottitis is a serious disease that needs to timely recognize and treat.Seriousness lies in its rapid progress, which may be even life threatening. But when galvanize time, leave no consequences.

When child experience the above symptoms, contact your doctor promptly. The child must be hospitalized and transport should car ambulance. Transmit must be in the sitting position, in any event lying down, since at that position even smaller airway caliber.

When it comes to the critical seal of the airways and asphyxia performs instantaneous intubation – introducing plastic tube through the mouth or nose directly into the trachea to secure respiration ortracheostomy (through the skin on the front side of the neck hole is made into the trachea and into the introducing tube) or coniotomy (power similar to a tracheostomy, opening only make up).

Extubation (taking out the plastic tube) is usually performed for 24-48 hours, if everything is in order. After securing the airway intravenously administered antibiotics to eliminate the cause of the illness and of course the inflammatory edema. The length of antibiotic treatment then lasts about two more weeks. In addition to antibiotics are administered medication to reduce fever (antipyretics), possibly steroids to reduce the swelling epiglot.

 

How can I help myself

The cure is not possible without qualified medical assistance, so when noticing the warning signs of such assistance must be sought immediately. While waiting for emergency medical service to leave the child in a sitting position and recommended to be laid cold compresses to the neck.

 

complications epiglottitis

Untreated epiglottitis is a serious disease that can lead to death. Swollen, inflamed epiglottis quality prevents the passage of air through airways. When developing the disease obstacle gradually increases with the risk of completely preventing the flow of air into the trachea with suffocation,loss of consciousness, and later provided to the saving measures can result in death.

In children with complications such as infection may rarely develop inflammation of the lungs(pneumonia), inflammation of the lining of the brain (meningitis), inflammation of the lining around the heart (pericarditis) or infections of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and joints.

Other names: inflammation of the epiglottis, the epiglottis inflammation, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the epiglottis, supraglottic laryngitis, laryngitis phlegmonosa

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