Ebola


Ebola

Description of Ebola

The Ebola virus was first isolated in 1976 in the northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), near a small river Ebola, under which got its name. At the time of this disease is still unknown and due to inadequate sterilization of needles in hospitals when there was the first epidemic. It has since been discovered, other strains of the virus broke out and a number of other deadly epidemics, particularly in Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Uganda and Sudan. Mortality in these infections is very high (depending on virus strain 50-90%) and the disease progression is often actually harrowing. The latest outbreak was confirmed in late 2007 in western Uganda, which has infected nearly 100 people. Ebola is one of the most dangerous diseases with which humanity has ever met, and therefore they are also real fears that the use of Ebola as a biological weapons for terrorist purposes.

Risk factors for Ebola

A risk factor is mainly stay in the area where the Ebola virus is found. The infection is transmitted through body fluids and secretions from infected person (blood, saliva, ejaculate, sweat, tears), therefore it is necessary to avoid direct contact with them. The possibility of transmission through intact skin has not been proven, through the mucous membranes, however, the virus penetrates and just a very small amount.

symptoms of Ebola

Ebola incubation period ranging from two days to four weeks, most often it is only 2-3 days. The onset of the disease is usually sudden, it starts high fever, malaise, headache, muscle and joint pain, conjunctivitis. They are usually abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Gradually develops bleeding, first into the digestive tract and, therefore, can sometimes be mistaken for dysentery disease or typhus. But gradually begins sick bleeding from all body openings, vomiting blood, the skin may develop bruising and there is also serious damage to all the internal organs, especially the liver, which lose their structure and cover (autopsies of deceased often reveal liver, which had been virtually ” pureeing a bloody pulp “). At the same time develops the disorder of blood coagulation, resulting precipitates disturb the blood circulation, and thus further contribute to the death of organs. The patient suffers from severe pain in the final stages may bleed from the eyes and suffer epileptic seizures. Whether the patient survives, it depends on his physical condition and the virus strain.

Ebola causes

Ebola virus causes disease that belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. There are currently four known virus strains that have the name of the place where they were discovered.

First discovered strain of virus is Ebola-Zaire, which is also the most dangerous infections mortality is about 90%. It causes the greatest number of cases and is considered the most dangerous virus at all.

Another strain of the virus is Ebola-Sudan, which is less dangerous infections and mortality is around 50%.

Ebola-Reston and Ebola-Ivory Coast strains are less dangerous and not very explored.

Ebola is also one of zoonoses (animal diseases transmissible to humans), but the natural reservoir of the virus or its vector (carrier) are not yet known. Into the human community certain areas of the virus is usually entered once infected person. Before the appearance of symptoms still no spread of virus to a large extent, but the infectivity increases with duration of the disease.

prevention of Ebola

African countries often ritually washed the dead with their bare hands, and there was the emergence of the first epidemic, because they also contracted, and then most of them also died. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the dead were buried secure methods to prevent the spread of the disease. An effective vaccine does not yet exist.

treatment of Ebola

Ebola is no causal therapy exists. The essence of treatment is only supportive therapy. Since one of the main causes of death is dehydration, it is necessary to maintain water and electrolyte balance. It is also necessary to maintain blood pressure and sufficient to ensure proper breathing.

If the patient survives, recovery is very long and complicated, long-term consequences and lasting repercussions from affecting various organs.

complications recovery

After suffering Ebola been reported deafness, blindness, further movement disorders, inflammation, bone marrow or spinal cord, inflammation of the eye structures, pericardium, testes, mumps and pancreas.

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