Description of the colon

Diverticulitis is an inflammatory disease of the colon (intestinum crassum).

The colon is the hollow tube length from 100 to 150 cm, which is stored in the abdominal cavity. It is the last section of the digestive tract. It begins at the end of the small intestine and anus opening ends. It consists of three parts: cecum, colon (ascending, transverse, descending and S-shaped handle) and rectum.

The appendix is widespread vakovitě first partition, positioned below the mouth of the small intestine. It is the widest part of the colon, followed by the wormlike projection (appendix).

Encircles the bowel loops of small intestine, upward is right, cross at the top and descending colon is left.

The last section – anus (rectum) ends a hole anus.

The colon has a different structure than the wall of small intestine, so diverticula (see below) on the small intestine does not. Colon wears three separate longitudinal muscle strips 3-4 mm thick (taneiae coli). Among these bands is the wall of the colon cambered breaks out in the so-called. Haustra, which are separated by transverse furrows


Description divertilukózy

In the colon, but also elsewhere in the digestive tract, causes small curvature of the intestinal wall. They occur quite often, we encounter them at 30% percent of people over fifty (60% of the population suffer from diverticular disorder in adulthood). They are smaller (several mm) and greater (up to 4 cm) vesicles – diverticula.

There are two kinds of diverticula (vesicles), according to what is formed by the wall.

True diverticula are less frequent and the wall has the same structure as the wall of the colon.False diverticula are more common and consists only of the intestinal mucosa, which stretched the other layers of the intestinal wall outside, mostly in the passage of vessels.

Places where they can stretch pouches, also result in an increase in pressure in the digestive tract (constipation), lack of fiber in the diet (too hard stools) and a reduced content of connective tissue (especially with increasing age). These pouches are likely to occur in the final sections of the colon – descending colon and S-shaped loop that are most stressed.

The mere occurrence vesicles (diverticula) is called diverticulosis and often without symptoms (asymptomatic) or non-specific symptoms (see below). Up to eighty percent of patients that have diverticula, even during life know. Problems arise only when complications develop. It’s all about vesicle inflammation and bleeding of them.

Inflammation is likely caused by bacteria that get into the diverticulum of the intestine. This is aggravated by the lack of fiber in the diet that causes constipation (constipation) and increased stool hardness or so. Paralysis of the intestine, which then does not move the stool. Both of these factors cause an increase in pressure in the digestive tract. The pressure on the damaged intestinal wall further aggravates their condition and allows the growth of bacteria. This process leads to inflammation.

Inflammation can then disrupt the wall and some vessels running in the intestinal wall, therebybleeding. Bleeding may be small, and there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells – anemia(anaemization) or large, which leads to a pressure drop from a lack of circulating liquid (hypovolaemia).


Risk factors for diverticulosis

Diverticulitis is a disease of civilization. It began to occur at a time when mankind has learned to work with blanks, and vegetables and fruits have begun to lose from menus.

Risk factors include poor eating habits. If you happen to work for their food, increase the intake of vegetables, fruit, fish and fiber, so it will definitely return not only for diseases of the intestines.

Risk factors can arrange certain genetic predisposition but also general problems with emptyingof stool.

The evacuation is related to the fact that many people no longer go to the toilet for completely different reasons than those for which it was created. They go there to read books and magazines and crossword puzzles. Do not do it. Your body will then unnecessarily confuses, he has learned that the toilet is going to read, so why would intestines gave the command to start moving and pushing the “poo” out. Confuse their intestines and read where it is read, that is in a comfortable chair.


prevention of diverticulosis

An important preventive measure is a modification of eating habits, diet modification and drinking schedule.

It’s all about plenty of fluids (grinding helping stools), every day you should drink at least two liters of liquids (coffee and tea do not count) to achieve a regular emptying of the stool right consistency.

Important is also adequate fiber intake and regular food intake, overeating and night eating adequate amounts of whole grains and fruits.

The fact that so far we have no difficulty does not mean that we should not have to adjust their habits. Warning us may be the fact that in our population the incidence of diverticulitis is increasing, while in other countries (regions of Asia and Africa), where the diet contains plenty of fiber, are almost non-existent.


Signs and symptoms of diverticulosis

Diverticulosis (only the presence of vesicles) usually has no symptoms, and many people have about her may never know. Symptoms have been observed at the development of complications, which are in most cases very serious.

acute diverticulitis

It has a rapid onset. The patient feels severe pain in the left lower abdomen (belly), sometimes even initially disease can be empty, when we see bloody stools. Other symptoms include subsequent abnormal bowel movements and flatulence.

chronic diverticulitis

It is characterized by constantly returning pain in the left lower abdomen (belly). We can observe emptying disorders – constipation (constipation) and flatulence (meteorism). These states are accompanied by a slightly increased temperature.

The entire set of symptoms is then very similar to the symptoms of appendicitis (appendicitis), but on the opposite side of the abdomen (appendix right).

From this it is clear that the symptoms of diverticulitis are not specific, therefore it may point to other diseases, which doctors inserted between the so-called. acute abdomen. For this reason, it is essential that you present yourself immediately to the doctor.


Treatment of diverticulosis and diverticulitis

Treatment is as all diseases given degree of damage to organ – intestine. May be conservative orsurgical acute cases.

The initial phase of the disease, even if they were mere suspicion, requires bed rest, prohibition of eating by mouth (orally), sufficient fluid intake, application of cold compresses on the lower abdomen and the use of antibiotics. Within 24 to 48 hours should lead to dental problems.

If the condition worsens, it may be due to the spread of infections after bowel (phlegmon or gangrene of the bowel wall), puncturing the bowel wall (perforation) or spread of the infection to the peritoneum (peritoneum). In this case it is necessary a damaged or occluded part of the intestineremoved. And there are more options to resolve the situation.

If not a great damage can be done so. single-stage operation. The surgeon removes the damaged portion and the remaining two ends together reconnects – arises directly links – anastomosis.

However, if the condition of the intestine and the surroundings worse, the surgeon removes the damaged portion again, but the ends together nepřišije. The first end, one that is closer to the small intestine, bring out through the abdominal wall to the surface and thereby establishes a temporary outlets intestines (stoma). The other end, one that is closer to the anus, just blindly conclude.After healing followed by a second operation, the surgeon at both ends of the bowel back together and restore the natural course of the intestinal tract.


How can I help myself

Himself in this situation the best person to help when a doctor looks.

Then helps alleviate the symptoms of bed rest with minimal movements, sufficient fluid intake andicing abdomen. Here it should be noted that everything has its limits. Not the best way to have excessive ledováním when abdominal pain, inflammation of the urinary tract chase.

It is also good to regularly taking prescribed medications. If you take them, for example, after eight hours, you really do is take this time. All medications that your doctor has prescribed goods. Today, it often happens that the patient take up drugs and he has just felt it was miraculously cured. This is not true. Only the symptoms of the illness receded, but the body is still far from healed and not repaired.


complications of diverticulosis

Complications during diverticulosis or diverticulitis are followed by many. It is mainly about the consequences of inflammation. There may develop an abscess (pus-filled tube), which either remain closed or will burst outside the intestine or another organ. Such a connection with another body, resulting provalením abscess (pus-filled cavities) is called fistula.

Fistula can occur between the intestine and the bladder or the vagina (vulva). If that happens, we can observe defecation and gas scabbard, and dark colored urine (fekalurie).

Other complications occurs when the infection spreading to the peritoneum. If there is damage to blood vessels caused by bleeding in the gut or into the abdominal cavity of the patient to endanger life, the more that may not be initially detected. Inflamed intestinal wall may also distend (amplify) and together with the condensed faeces completely clog the intestinal canal. This produces ileus,which only exacerbates the situation in the part of the intestine before closure. In these places it may cause inflammation and new diverticula.

Other names: diverticulitis, divertikulosa, divertikulosis, divertikulitidis

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