Diphtheria


Diphtheria

Description diphtheria

Diphtheria Diphtheria is a serious or infectious disease caused by a bacterial toxin Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Surface vaccination against diphtheria was introduced in 1946 and is therefore in developed countries almost absent. In the Czech Republic registered the last case in 1995. In developing countries, where there are frequent problems with hygiene, but still exists.Increased incidence is also recorded on the territory of Ukraine, Latvia and Russia.

Cause and risk factors diphtheria

For the formation of diphtheria stands aforementioned bacterial toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. This toxin can spread directly to the air from an infected human or indirectly infected subjects. Diphtheria bacteria are very resistant and can survive on surfaces. Therefore, they can easily spread to other countries where diphtheria occur. The disease is also open wound so that it can be both a cause and bites from insects.

Risk group are immigrants without proper hygiene habits. It remains necessary for nationwide vaccination because these bacteria disappear, we just against them through vaccination immune.

prevention of diphtheria

Effective defense against diphtheria will provide mandatory vaccinations. Since 2007, vaccination is carried hexa that a single dose protects against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive Haemophilus influenzae. The vaccine should be friendly, but even so there will be many children who suffer worse (mostly operates fever, vomiting).

Babies begin to vaccinate the 13th week of life, when in the first year will receive a total of 3 doses. Among the first three doses are recommended monthly minimum spacing. A fourth dose should then be submitted to the 18th month of life, the minimum distance after the previous dose is 6 months.

Booster doses should be between 5 and 6 years as called. Fortifying agent.
Later revaccination is recommended only for people older than 50 who plan to travel to risk areas.

symptoms of diphtheria

Infection is most commonly manifested as diphtheria larynx (laryngeal diphtheria, croup), diphtheria almonds, diphtheria nasal mucosa and rarely as diphtheria conjunctivitis, skin and genitals.

Disease begins with mild fever, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite and malaise. Therefore, it may be easily confused with angina. Larynx and nasal cavity are swollen, they appear swollen submandibular lymph nodes. Swollen tonsils are coated with white and yellow pseudomembrane sweetish causing halitosis. These pseudomembrane consists organism due to the spread of venom from bacteria. Dangerous to us that zneprůchodňují airways and ultimately lead to death.

Poor diagnosis and treatment can cause the development of malignant diphtheria, diphtheria maligna. Yellowish coating extends to near the mucous membrane of the soft palate and cancer. The temperature was then increased up to 40 ° C and the patient breathes heavily open mouth. Zduřuje neck, and so swollen neck, then call caesarský.

The incubation period is measured between 2-5 days.

treatment of diphtheria

Early diagnosis is important because the late treatment may even cause death. In cases of suspected diphtheria swab swab is made from almonds or other affected areas and then begintreatment with antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment is carried out immediately, since the time is in this case the greatest enemy. At the same time served diphtheria antitoxin that neutralizes the toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The patient must be throughout treatment under proper supervision of physicians in isolation wards.

Each case of diphtheria must be reported hygienic station. Investigations must also undergo infected people from the neighborhood.

complications of diphtheria

Poor diagnosis and treatment can cause the development of malignant diphtheria, diphtheria maligna.

Malignant diphtheria is often accompanied by inflammation of the heart muscle or myocarditis and pozáškrtovými paralysis.

Later effects of toxins include nerve damage, and kidney damage.

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