Conjunctivitis


Conjunctivitis

Description conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis origin of the word comes from the Latin name of the conjunctiva – the tunica conjunctiva and Latin suffixes -itis, Czech -itida, which indicates that the disease is an inflammatory nature.

Conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that passes to the eyeball and front covers sclera to the edge of the cornea. The space between the conjunctiva and sclera eyelids called conjunctival sac.

Conjunctivitis can be classified according to several criteria, which complement each other. According to the course is divided into hyperacute (when symptoms develop within a few hours after meeting with infections), acute (symptoms develop usually within a few hours or days, during the week there is a disability other eye and takes no more than 4 weeks) and chronic lasting longer than four weeks.

According to the originator is in the most general level can be divided into infectious whose agents are bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi and noninfectious arising from permanent irritation – for example in relation to allergies, possibly with overall disease organism.

Breakdown conjunctivitis is very colorful and detailed, for good understanding and tidy analyze different types of conjunctivitis by agents and will be here only the most common types because many others in our geographical positions rare (for example, some parasitic conjunctivitis) or the disease itself occurs worldwide very seldom.

1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

This type of conjunctivitis is the most common in the winter and spring. Purulent inflammation of a character often arise within a few hours, so we can talk about hyperakutním or acute – by the originator – inflammation. It’s not the most common type of conjunctivitis, make up only about 5% of conjunctivitis.

Hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis is caused by infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Neisseria meningitis, which are the agents in the first case, gonorrhea, meningitis second.

Inflammation develops within a few hours, there is a swelling of the eyelids, purulent secretions thick and swollen glands. Therapies are on this conjunctivitis antibiotics in high doses – both locally in the form of ointments and total administration in tablet form.

Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by the streptococcus genus, hemophilus orstaphylococcus. Manifested lacrimation, mucopurulent secretion that adheres lids. Conjunctiva arewith blood. Children usually originator spread throughout the body and causing systemic symptoms of inflammation in the body, such as temperature.

Chronic bacterial conjunctivitis are often caused by Staphylococcus aureus, less often on their formation may participate in intestinal bacteria. This kind of inflammation is accompanied by inflammation of the eyelids.

2nd Viral conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis caused by viruses are the most common, the typical symptom is a feeling of “sand in the eyes”, which surely everyone ever experienced.

Transfer is accomplished with personal care items that are contaminated with secretions from the eyes or respiratory tract, or by direct contact with an infected person who is most contagious the first 10 days.

Here division conjunctivitis complicated, for simplicity, there are shown some types.

Typical viral agent (působitelem) are adenoviruses. Conjunctivitis caused by them is a highly infectious disease and its transmission occurs easily, such as the already mentioned personal care items or direct contact with an infected person. Secretions which inflamed eye produces a watery, slightly mucoid. A frequent finding is also swollen glands.

In children, the most commonly may occur in the so-called faryngokonjuntivální fever, which is directly related to the inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and fever. Infection has a rapid onset, zduřují nodules may occur pseudomembrane. Pseudomembrane is composed of “stiff” secretions can be separated from the conjunctiva. Direct therapy exists here, recommended cold compresses and medications that cause blood vessel withdrawal.

Another type of conjunctivitis are those caused by herpes viruses (Herpes simplex viruses that affect haze). This species is manifested by increasing nodes, the conjunctiva can find tiny sacs.

Third chlamydial conjunctivitis

Chlamydiae are parasites that survive inside cells, such as interface between the viruses and bacteria. In humans, the most common Chlamydia trachomatis.

Chlamydia act as ocular inflammation, and inflammation of the urethra, fallopian tubes, and cervix.They are sexually transmitted.

As a consequence of chlamydial infection arises conjunctiva special type of inflammation calledtrachoma. It will not occur, but it is the most common cause of blindness in third world countries because of the reasons for the low level of hygiene. Most often begins 5th day after the introduction of infection into the eye (inoculation) and a foreign body sensation in eyes, on both sides inflammation and purulent discharge from the eye. Trachoma often returns even after successful treatment, because it does not confer immunity against. Therapy is usually tetracycline antibiotics.

The second type of inflammation that Chlamydia causes is inclusion conjunctivitis in adults, which is a sexually transmitted disease that is most frequent occurrence in young adults, and the introduction into the eye occurs after hand contact with infected genitalia and subsequently with the eye. It manifests itself in about seven days of infection and develops a different time, in a matter of weeks to months, gradually affects the other eye. The patient usually has little trouble, which often does not attach importance, therefore, is not to early treatment and this kind of inflammation that might go into a chronic, lasting longer than four weeks.

4th Allergic Conjunctivitis

Conjunctiva is a place where very often the contact with allergens human immune system. It’s obvious, because this place is the outside world relatively well open. If the organism to a given allergen hypersensitivity, allergic reaction develops.

It is most often manifested by itching, burning, excessive tearing, swollen eyelids and conjunctiva or different degrees of thickening of the cornea. Secretions in this case is watery to mucoid, but not purulent. It occurs either seasonally or year-round.

The inflammation occurs due to allergic reactions – the allergen binds to the cell, specifically on mast cells, which have in themselves vesicles with substances that act on the surrounding tissue aggressively, so long as they spillage. A spillage occurs just after the stimulation of the body given allergen.

Conjunctiva in this type of inflammation is pale and itchy and burning. As for treatment, it is necessary to cooperate with the allergist and necessary it is to avoid or at least limit the maximum contact with the allergen allergies.

 

Risk factors for conjunctivitis

Risk factors are generally listed contact with agents. The eye is the organ most sensitive and easily hurt, not so developed protective barrier, or the infection has facilitated the passage way.Conjunctiva is the body that is exposed to the outside world even more.

It is important to adhere to hand hygiene, if it is present another disease in an organism – such as a sexually transmitted disease, streptococcal disease and others.

Further, it may be a risk factor in a small amount of tears – tears are one of the mechanisms that eye conjunctiva and protects constantly bathe and prevent infectious agents capture and invade tissue. Excessive dryness of eyes occurs, such as in sunny weather, especially if you do not protect your eyes with glasses or too windy weather. Eyes should be against such adverse conditions protected if it arises despite the feeling of dry eyes, it is necessary to apply the so-called artificial tears, which are mostly counter in pharmacies.

 

Prevention conjunctivitis

Preventing been mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The most important element is increased hygiene in the case that he had developed infection. If the infection only fear is fundamentally good use its funds for personal hygiene, ensure the cleanliness of hands, wasted a “nemnout ‘eyes and in adverse weather conditions will try our best to protect your eyes.

 

Signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis

For viral conjunctivitis will be the first signal that something is wrong in the morning feeling “sand in the eyes”, later adding a clear discharge, which would have a structure similar to water or sparse mucus. When you look at the conjunctiva, will definitely red and waterlogged.

If you disability bacterial conjunctivitis and the conjunctiva same as in the previous case, but also added effluent, which is thick and purulent. Pain in eye will also be present.

In allergic conjunctivitis, the first manifested itching, burning, if you look at the conjunctiva, will be unlike previous cases paler.

Chlamydial infection is first manifested feeling of foreign body in the eye, later added effluent, which is often purulent. Regarding inclusion conjunctivitis symptoms are much milder

 

Treatment of conjunctivitis

First, something investigative methods. If a doctor suspects conjunctivitis, conducted a thorough slit lamp examination. If it is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the present congestion of conjunctiva (conjunctiva loses its pink color and the blood to brick red. This is due to the fact that the capillaries in the mucosa in the presence of inflammation expand = dilate), conjunctiva is swollen (due transmittance stretched fluid from capillaries that are often damaged due to inflammation and cracks on them (fenestration)). Furthermore, the present excessive secretion of tears.

Doctor investigating both the lower conjunctival sac, the upper conjunctival sac and so-calledeversion (twisting) of the upper eyelid. To verify the diagnosis and determination of the causative agent is carried swab from the conjunctiva, which is sent to the microbiological examination.Is used to determine whether it is a bacterial, viral, fungal or chlamydial disease, and according to this determination is further chosen therapy.

If it is a chronic conjunctivitis, the doctor can remove it from the conjunctival biopsy to a detailed study of conjunctival tissue, and also to select the best treatment.

For bacterial and chlamydial conjunctivitis are used to antibiotic therapy. Locally administered in the form of eye drops or ointments, generally administered tablets.

The therapy may be supported washings eye jodopovidonem, a disinfectant with addition of iodine as already evident from the name.

For viral conjunctivitis definitely do not take antibiotics. Recommended therapy cold compresses,drugs that tapered capillaries or antivirals in drops or ointments.

Allergic conjunctivitis is primarily treated by removing the allergen from the life of allergic or can support the combat allergy symptoms with antihistamines. It is important to cooperate with allergologist.

 

How do I help myself

As for the treatment itself, is not a man much opportunity as you help yourself. The most important requirement remains strict adherence to hygiene. If the patient manages, it is safe both for himself and his surroundings.

It should be appreciated that most generators conjunctivitis is highly contagious and transmission to another is easy as well as the possibility of introduction of infection from the eye to the whole organism (valid but on the contrary, that in the overall impairment of the organism can be failure of hygiene dragged infection to the eye ! if chlamydia is the most common cause of disease introduction into the eye right hands, where parasites items stuck after contact with the genitals).

 

Complications conjunctivitis

There are frequent because of difficulties caused in connection with human conjunctivitis lead very soon to the doctor. The problem can occur in young children, which may conjunctivitis overlooked.

Such complications may be for example in bacterial conjunctivitis pseudomembrane formationand membranes. Pseudomembrane are formed by stiff, coagulated (= arrissed) secretion, which adheres to the mucosa, but can be from the surrounding mucosa yet separated. They occur most often in severe adenoviral infections, in infections with Neisseria.

You can not separate the membrane because the material that constitute it penetrates the mucosa and trying to tear will tear the cover of the conjunctiva. Membranes occur in severe infections caused by streptococci.

Other names: conjunctivitis, conjunctival inflammation, conjunctivitis acuta, conjunctivitis chronica, acute conjunctivitis, chronic conjunctivitis, conjunctivitis hyperacute, acute conjunctivitis, chronic conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis

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