Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Description of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema.

As the name implies this is a lower respiratory diseases – mainly lung tissue where there is an obstacle (obstruction) in lung tissue and thereby prevents the patient breathing in True. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease leads to increased airway resistance, which is an obstacle to the airflow during exhalation (expiratory).

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ill 5-20% of the adult population, which is a frequent occurrence in men. The disease is closely associated with cigarette smoking and professions in dusty environments (grinding of glass, brick, manufacture asbestos, coal mines).


Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are two basic carrier and risk factors.
The first is smoking, which is clogged alveoli tar and other pollutants from cigarette tobacco.

The alveoli are like a small chamber, where it captures oxygen and from there it is distributed further blood throughout the body. If these cellars occupied (mucus or air) is not where oxygen transfer, while also reducing the sheer volume of the lungs.

The second factor is employment or life in dusty environments (see above), where there is a similar mechanism to store contaminants in the air sacs and their permanent destruction and subsequent rebuilding. Especially if inhaled these storyline leads to obstruction – obstruction.

From here include hazardous substances – sulfur dioxide, nitrous gases, hydrocarbons, formaldehyde etc.

Other risk factors, it should be noted recurrent respiratory infections (most commonly occurring bacterium is hemophilus and pneumococcus), polluted air, depending on the age – with age chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is increasing, also depends on sex (chronic bronchitis is more often in men at a ratio of 2 : 1), then old tuberculosis (TB), repeated pneumonias, and finally asthma(bronchial asthma).


Prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease that can often really prevented. Apply to it as much family history, so if your loved ones will have it does not mean that you chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must also sick, just follow a few precautions.

The main prevention is not smoking! If you have already started, stop immediately – to reduce the risk of illness each year without a cigarette.

Another factor is a healthy and active lifestyle. Diet focusing on plenty of fruits, vegetables and protein, active exercises and move to fresh air. A related work in a dusty environment that is as harmful as cigarettes. Again consistent use of protective equipment – respirators.

Subsequent prevention is to reduce the number of respiratory infections. This of course also related to healthy lifestyle (healthy and strong body to better deal with infections) and smoking when clogged airways are zeslábnuté and respiratory infections are more frequent. They can also prevent, for example, vaccination against influenza.


Signs and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a collective name for two diseases that differ in their pathology, but it is difficult to distinguish whether they occur together. It is therefore necessary to define both diseases separately.

The first disease is chronic bronchitis.
This is defined by increased secretion of mucus associated with chronic cough lasting 3 months for one year and at least two consecutive years. However, this definition is not yet clear, it is necessary to subject the patient’s lung and cardiac examinations and to distinguish from other illnesses.

Its pathology is enlargement (hypertrophy) of mucous glands. Bronchial wall (wall of pulmonary tissues) is subsequently challenged infection. Infections of the lung tissue leads to obstacles (obstructions) mucous formation of pus, which is then inhaled air in the lungs unevenly spread. This process causes consequent insufficient blood oxygenation (hypoxia) which may resultpromodrávání skin (cyanosis = result of lack of oxygen), withdrawal of blood vessels (vasoconstriction) and the high pulmonary pressure (pulmonary hypertension).

Typically, the high morning expectoration of phlegm accumulated during sleep horizontally (horizontal) position.

Another diseases are pulmonary emphysema, the disease is characterized by permanent enlargement of the alveoli in the lung tissue. This leads to the extinction of partitions (septa) between the alveoli and thereby subsequently demolished lung tissue.

May produce up to 1 cm large spaces filled with air – without the alveoli – the dysfunctional breathing space. We think of them as air pockets, which cause similar obstacle (obstruction) as mucus in chronic bronchitis.

Partitions alveoli then violate cough and pressure in the chest cavity during expiration. Such a person is particularly shortness of breath, initially during movement or heavy physical activity, and later during everyday activities or at rest. Characteristic breathing phenomena (differences from normal breathing) are often heard with the naked ear – includes typical whistles and squeaks.Visually, can a person with emphysema barrel-chest from expanding the chest area.

Shortness of breath as a symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very unpleasant feeling. A state where you can not breathe adequately is extremely uncomfortable and feeling that often leads to suffocate přerývanému breathing, increased blood circulation, thus further worsening the already alarming situation.

The disease leads to the formation of pulmonary heart small obstruction of blood circulation and subsequent cardiac complications.

Helps doctors to diagnose lung X-rays, determining levels of blood gases, vital capacity, investigations and other lung function – spirometry, listening to the lungs, but also the analysis of sputum (mucus odkašlávaného). Finally, computed tomography (CT).


Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

The basic treatment is to stop smoking, exposure to dusty environments change careers, if not, then use protective equipment. Disease often leads to complete disability – the patient is practically permanently unable to work.

When treatment is an important psychological support from physicians and families. Another object of treatment is the administration of drugs – bronchodilators (releasing substance lung tissue).These drugs are usually administered through inhalation in order to reach the active substance directly to the required site in the lungs. Recently, significantly improves the comfort of medication – the necessary injections gradual crossing in modern sprays, inhalers, pills that you put into a special disk and inhale its contents.

It is important positioning in order to excess mucus expectoration of the bronchi. If the positioning is not sufficiently effective, it must go on the mechanical extraction.

As previously stated, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severe pressures on the psyche, because learning to live with a constant lack of air, it is very difficult.

In the last stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient must be increasingly more oftenconnected to the oxygen, since the lungs are not able to provide the organism or required level of oxygen for the sleep operation. The patient must be out of breath just fit on the bed. Therefore, the patient has a home appliance with oxygen under Regulation doctor uses it.

At the stage where longer even this is not enough, the patient is transferred to the intensive care unit, where he is deployed oxygen in the full ventilation by means of intubation (a tube directly into the airways), tracheotomy (a hole in the level of collarbones directly into the trachea = trachea sometimes referred to as the “Nightingale”) or merely a mask over his mouth – according to the severity of the condition.

It is important that the patient became ill some respiratory infections, as well as a common cold him with the state of pneumonia and exposes him life-threatening.


How can I help myself

The best advice is to immediately quit smoking! Avoid dusty and polluted environment is another council, which, however, are not always followed. But what you can affect the working life of a healthy lifestyle.

If you already have the disease broke out at you, follow your doctor’s advice. At this stage really stop smoking, otherwise the rapid development of the disease. It is important to significantlyreduce passive smoking – eg. A permanent residence in the restaurant facility either as a guest or as a serving staff sharply deteriorating current state itself chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

In the final stage, otherwise you’ll end up on a ventilator. Therefore, be careful to treat lung tissue expansion mostly in the form of inhalers with bronchodilators (s expanding bronchi).

Sleep with more pillows let you ensure improved mucus clearance from the lungs. Do not take more medication than you have been prescribed, often unnecessary use of the possibility of invalidating the effect of quality medicines in acute worsening or in severe stages of the disease.

It helps a so-called respiratory rehabilitation, every patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must learn to properly use breathing muscles – the diaphragm, the abdominal wall.

It is suitable spa treatment, climate therapy – stay warm sea, recently detected even very good and staying in underground caves.

Very good is at the respiratory rehabilitation play a musical instrument when you learn to breathe properly – is known for Flute School professor veins.

Consistently should be treated not just any ordinary infection and hypothermia, here unfortunately, the doctor must frequently than normal healthy person prescribing antibiotics. But they must treat even allergic to tree pollen, dust, pet hair, chemicals and numerous other allergens.


Complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Complications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism.

Pneumothorax is an accumulation of air in the pleural (pleural) space.

Pulmonary embolism is a disease in which there is a closure of the pulmonary artery embolus (clot often released from the lower limbs). When exceeding to the heaviest phase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease leads to severe dyspnea oxygen deficient, that patients must be continuously connected to the breathing apparatus, used to lavage (lavage) airways

Other names: COPD, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema

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