Description of the gallbladder

Gallbladder (vesica Felley) is positioned on the lower side of the liver in a small recess. It is a small pouch the size of a lemon of around 40-70 cm3. Its main function is to store bile and concentration, so you could say it’s a bag-like container bile.

Bile is produced in the liver “, liver bile” is much less concentrated. Gallbladder drains from the “liver bile” water and the remaining concentrated juice stores.

Gallbladder based on its outlet (cystic duct), which after about three centimeters connects with terminal liver (ductus hepaticus communis) and proceed as bile (bile duct).

The final leg of the bile duct then joins with terminal pancreatic and mouth in the first section of the small intestine – the duodenum (duodenal).

Bile is produced in a quantity of about 0.7 to 1.2 liter / day. Its basic components are bile acids,cholesterol and bilirubin (žlučivý pigment-dye).

Bile is secreted after eating the nervous impulse. Participates mainly in the digestion and absorption of fats, but also together with the state of the pancreas (pancreatic juice) neutralizes gastric digestive juices and thus protects the intestine from damage.


Description cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) may be associated with inflammation of the bile ducts (cholangitis), or it may not. The inflammation is usually caused by an infection by amicroorganism.

There are two paths that can get into the gallbladder infection. Path intestinal leads from the small intestine via the terminals (see description basic body) infection is caused mainly by the intestinal flora, mainly E. coli, for which there is adapted gallbladder mucosa.

The second path is the blood when the infection reaches the gallbladder through the arteries that bring blood already infected (the majority of these microorganisms – Salmonella, Streptococcus, orfever).

Cholecystitis may also be associated with the incidence of gallstones (cholelithiasis).

Inflammation course depends on many factors: the hazard (virulence) of the infection, the age of the patient and on its current state. Poorer is in people with diabetes mellitus (diabetes).

The infection causes damage to the gallbladder wall and induces changes in its environment.Damage to the wall may be so great that there is a gallbladder caving “externally” to the abdominal cavity (perforation). Inflammation may spread into the surroundings irrespective of whether the wall of the gallbladder bursts or not. Bile if the bile duct or gall bladder contained is zahoustlá mucus or pus turbid dopants also may also contain micro-organisms which cause inflammation of the gallbladder and channel them into the intestine. Microorganisms are then covered in feces and can be detected there – identified.


Risk factors cholecystitis

Risk factors include gallstones, you may have different origins and composition and cause 90% of acute cholecystitis. Regards cholesterol stones, pigment stones and mixed stones. Some inflammation occur, they can cause others.

The main risk is the movement calculus if it engages in any constriction or damage the gallbladder or wall outlet. Bile stones may also completely obstruct the bile duct, thereby preventing flow of bile juice and sometimes pancreas. The accumulation of these juices can cause further damage.

Another risk factor is infection by certain microorganisms elsewhere in the body, they can then blood from main bearing transfer and settle in the gallbladder.

With a slight exaggeration, you could say that the risk factor is age over 40 years of age andfemale gender because cholecystitis occurs in the 40% of women over forty years.
Increased incidence is also common in women after childbirth and in obese people. It is also a fact that mild inflammation can occur without obvious symptoms and pain, unnoticed.


prevention of cholecystitis

The main prevention is directed to high-quality, balanced and regular diet. The risk is also reduced in preventing gallstones (baby intake of dietary cholesterol).


Signs and symptoms of cholecystitis

The main symptoms are a temperature (38 ° C) and a sudden pain in the right upper abdomen.Pain shoots up under his right shoulder blade and back. Pain is the first gusts – colicky (gall colic = severe pain in subhepatic landscape) and comes in waves, but later it is permanent.

In half of the patients, the disease is associated with vomiting and nausea. If the inflammation spreads to other organs or to the wall of the abdominal cavity, we can observe higher temperatures and chills.


treatment of cholecystitis

Treatment is given by the current status of the patient. Generally, there are two ways: conservative– non-invasive treatment and surgical treatment.

Non-invasive treatment includes a ban on eating by mouth (oral intake, oral) administration ofantispasmodics (drugs dampening contraction of the gallbladder) and ice packs.

In severe cases, it administered infusion and is introduced nasogastric tube (NS tubing is introduced through the nose into the stomach where it is possible to extract the contents or administer liquid food or medication).

Antibiotics are not usually prescribed at this stage, because reducing the symptoms of the infection may lead to a blurring of the major symptoms or to late speech.

On the contrary, it is prescribed, if it is decided to surgical treatment, when the patient’s condition worsening. Surgical treatment consists of removing the damaged gallbladder.

Removing runs laparoscopically (small holes through the abdominal wall, with no major noticeable scars) or by opening the abdominal cavity (with a larger involvement of surrounding structures).Surgical treatment follows a clear diagnosis, considering the overall condition of the patient or a significant deterioration in his condition.


How can I help myself

Cholecystitis is a serious disease and therefore our steps should primarily lead to a specialist. Sami then we can follow a diet with less fat and enclosing a cold compresses. Bouts of pain in the early stages come after ingestion of fat or heavy meal, so compliance with the rules of healthy eating can alleviate the initial symptoms.


complications of cholecystitis

Complications in the treatment of inflammation of the gallbladder are given extensiveness inflammation. Great inflammation can end rupture (perforation) of the gallbladder wall. This leads to spilling its contents into the abdominal cavity (approximately at 10% of acute inflammation) or other hollow organs (stomach, duodenum), after pouring into the stomach can be found gallstones in vomit, if you in one such stone found, please feel free to take him to the doctor. A doctor from its shape, size and color can detect many.

But inflammation can spread without tearing, only through the wall of the gallbladder. In this case, compromised liver also occur peritoneal inflammation (peritonitis).

Postoperative complications occur mainly in the elderly (over 60 years), obese people, diabetics and patients with acute pancreatitis.

Other names: inflammation of the gallbladder, inflamed gallbladder, cholecystitis, acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, cholangitis cholangitis, cholelithiasis

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