Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Description cervical cancer

Cervical cancer can be first split, as the vast majority of tumors for benign tumors (or ‘benign’) and malignant ( “malignant”).

The group of benign tumors in the localization of the cervix is one of the so-called endocervical polyp and most common malignant tumor is carcinoma.

Histologically, the squamous cervical carcinoma.

Despite all the efforts the parties gynecology – which is meant regular gynecological screening, which includes a half-yearly preventive examinations and subsequent cytological analysis of the smear of cells from the cervix – is a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, one of the most serious cancers in women, and significantly contributes to overall mortality.

Its occurrence is more frequent in developing countries and in the context of a much smaller rate of preventing the occurrence of infections and more plentiful. This phenomenon but is currently significantly improved. While the incidence of this type of tumor can be observed geographical differences, because disproportionately more often we meet him in Southeast Asia and Latin America.

Before developing cervical carcinoma, precedes the various periods in which the observedprecancerous lesion (tumor předstádia) which are newly called cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) and is divided into types I – III. CIN I has the risk of malignant transformation about 2%, 5% CIN II and CIN III 20%. Lower grade CIN may be a few percent jump to higher levels more often may spontaneously disappear, so please do not immediately succumb to unnecessary panic.

The risk of a reversal in the inferior level depends mainly on the type of virus that caused the change (see. Below – low risk versus high risk viruses). Reversal process and cancer development is a long-term, says the range of about 10 to 20 years.

The etiology of this disease play a major role in human Papillomavirus (Human papilloma viruses,HPV), which occur in several species (serotypes).

These viruses are divided into low-risk (low risk – Types 6, 11, and less frequently 42 and 44 mainly cause condylomata = skin growths like warts) and high risk (high risk – types 16, 18, 31, 33, uncommon 35 , 39, 45, 52, 56, 58, 59). With the high-risk types of HPV are associated CIN II and III and cervical cancer.

Viruses integrate into genes cervical cells and causes uncontrolled cell proliferation. Although many women are infected by these viruses, only some develop cancer. This relates primarily to a combination of risk factors, which are listed separately in the text below.

Higher incidence of human papillomavirus infection is found in promiscuous women, women who have had multiple births (multiparous) and belonging to the lower socio-economic groups. In contrast, the virgins of this disease almost never do.

Regarding age, and the most affected group is women aged 45 to 55 years. Unfortunately age is steadily decreasing, so there’s no exception that meet him often in younger women.


Risk factors for cervical cancer

Risk factors for this type of illness several. All of them but one usually cause itself.

Because it is essentially a sexually transmitted disease, it is necessary to the forefront of all the risks include the large number of sexual partners (promiscuity) – and that’s part of the woman and the man! If a woman has only one partner, but with risky sexual behavior (both currently and in the past), the risk is as great as if I act like herself.

Another risk factor is the low age at first sexual intercourse.

As already described above, cervical cancer caused by human papillomaviruses. If it persists infections caused thereby (i.e., the infection is not treated, the treatment is neglected (e.g. patient disregards instructions doctor)) is again increased risk of malignancy.

Total immunodeficiency (insufficient ability of the organism to defend against external adverse influences – viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. It is weakened by internal protective barrier of the organism, which is called the immune system) are next in order in the risk of malignancies.
Typically immunodeficiency condition occurs in individuals who are HIV positive, or receiving immunosuppressive therapy, such as various other cancers).
There are a number of inherited diseases in which the immune barrier is disrupted organism. A healthy organism is always a certain percentage of so-called help himself and infection discarded.And as already mentioned, persistent papillomavirus infection leads to cancer of the cervix localization.

The last group of risk can include smoking – so, as indeed a large number of other malignancies.

Most of these risk factors are linked to lower socio-economic class, but of course not be complete except not in an advanced civilization.


Cervical Cancer Prevention

The most effective prevention is to avoid all (if it is of course possible) risk factors.Immunodeficiency states of the body, especially congenital diseases, the man himself hardly affects, but the attending physician who is familiar with the state of the patient certainly makes sure to give him threaten greater danger than is apparent from its original illness.

If you avoid risks, it is another point of concern regular gynecological examination. Top each half year, the latest in a period of one year. Gynecologist performed a standard smear of cells from the cervix (with a brush or a small spatula), which is sent for histological examination. It is the most sensitive test that during regular inspections can detect changes in the cervix and in the very early stages of the disease, and it allows timely therapeutic solutions. Precancerous changes can sometimes prevent the development of cancer by up to twenty years.

A bit of history – this examination was introduced before the Second World War, a doctor of Greek origin – Papanicolaou (hence the name, with whom you can ever meet – Pap tests, or Pap screening also) who described cytology smears cervical mucous. For greater expansion and application of this method was not until later in the fifties of the twentieth century. This method achieved reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer to one third and capture předstádií this disease has increased significantly.

It’s short and painless examination, which is really a good enough reason to make him every woman at least once a year she underwent. It may just help.

Today is also an effective vaccine available. On the market are available two vaccines. But it should be understood that both acts only against the basic type of papillomavirus namely HPV 6, 11, 16, 18. Those Although involved in the development of the tumor most, but certainly not the only factors that cause it. Positivity is that vaccine may decrease to a lower grade CIN. Of course not protect against other sexually transmitted diseases. Age suitable for vaccination is given 10 to 25 years, but there are studies in which shows a positive effect even in older women 25 years. In any case, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist.

Case by case might be different and a sophisticated professional can tailor therapy may be living in peace.


Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer

It will be appreciated that not all types of tumors can be specifically expressed. Attention definitely deserves bleeding outside the menstrual cycle, altered vaginal discharge, says the white(beware, altered vaginal discharge, of course, does not necessarily mean just the worst case scenario, in most cases, is present in genital inflammation, typically by candidiasis, where the outlet is also white, tvarohovité consistency and other fungal infections. In any case, should always be a reason to visit gynecology).

Pain during intercourse is another symptom that could mean that the cervix may be something wrong. As the last symptom may be included difficulty urinating.


Treatment of Cervical Cancer

Most precancerous lesions through Pap screening diagnosed early (the large majority is recognized already in the stage of primary lesions, the so-called preinvasive stage when cervical cell changes are present, but it is not yet a cancer).

Advanced stages are often present in women who have never been on a gynecological examination or postpone it for a long time (typical reason – something was wrong, but doctors prefer not going to tell me that I had cancer).

Therapy is mainly surgical, radiological second row. Surgery is selected at the lower stages of the disease, radiology in advanced tumors, which have not to operate (for example, due to penetration into the area, metastases etc.)

Surgery less invasive cancer and precancerous lesions of the chosen method called conization ortracheotomy with a statue of the cervix. Both of these performances preserve fertility. They are the most effective methods of treatment.

In the case that the tumor is advanced (by this decides gynecologist, often in consultation with another expert, often with another gynecologist or oncologist) elects to radical surgery such ashysterectomy (hysterectomy) maintaining or withdrawal of ovarian or radical surgery is total hysterectomy with pelvic lymph nodes imprisonment.


How do I help myself

First, it is recommended to avoid risk factors, especially their combination. Specifically – for example, a woman who is promiscuous should at least should try to avoid smoking.

In developing the disease is always required the participation of several factors and can not tell who is the last one who started the whole serious illness. It already own risky sexual behavior should be alarming.

Furthermore, they strongly recommend regular gynecological examinations. If you still have a fear of cervical cancer, make an appointment with your doctor, whether if it is appropriate for you inoculation.


Complications of cervical cancer

Untreated cancer metastasis occurs, mainly via lymph nodes.

If the cancer is not treated or is discovered very late in higher stages of differentiation ( “maturity”) complications are inflammation of the small pelvis, pyelonephritis (inflammation of the renal pelvis), closure of the urinary tract.

Other Names: cervical cancer, cervical cancer, uterine cervix carcinoma, carcinoma uteri, squamous cervical carcinoma

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