Upper urinary tract

Into the upper respiratory tract are counted kidneys and ureters.

Kidney (renes, nefros)

The parenchymal organ paired bean-shaped and dark red to brown in color. Retroperitoneally they are stored under the abdominal cavity, where they are protected fins and adipose tissue. Their dimensions are 9-12 × 6 × 3 cm, weighs about 150 grams.

They consist of several parts:

  • Renal medulla (Medullarenalis) in which they are called. Pyramids, renal chalices, draining urine into the renal pelvis.
  • Kidney cortex (Cortexrenalis) – brighter layer in which is located nephrons
  • Renal pelvis (Pelvis renal artery) converge in the renal chalices, which brings her urine, she continues into the ureter.

Nephron: basic functional and structural unit of the kidney. It consists of a filter portion, i.e. glomeruli, fetal capillaries in the housing – Bowman pouch.

Tubular partsthe passages of the first and second order, which connects the loop of Henle.

Renal function

  • Urine – through her work come from the body of waste products is regulated by the volume of fluid in the body, maintaining acid-base balance.
  • Filtration – is to ensure in the glomerulus, which brings the primary urine in which the body and the benefit agent.,
  • Resorption – many substances are returned to the body, urine is concentrated.
  • Secretion – creating a definitive urine pH control.
  • Endocrine function – the creation of renin, erythropoietin, 1,2-dihydroxycholecalciferol
  • Blood pressure regulation

The last part of the upper urinary tract are the ureters – tubular bodies formed by draining urine into the bladder.

Sicknesses of this body part:

Inflammation of the urinary tract

Inflammation of the urinary tract

Description of the urinary tract At least once in your life every woman goes through urinary tract infections. It is a disease which is most frequently (up to 80%) caused by Escherichia coli, a bacterium which normally lives in our…



Description of kidney inflammation Pyelonephritis is an infectious inflammatory kidney disease,usually of bacterial origin (literally is an inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney). It may occur as an acute (a rapid onset, progress with significant symptoms) or chronic (long-lasting,…

Kidney Cancer

Kidney Cancer

Description of kidney tumors If we look at kidney cancer in general, it is necessary to divide them into benign tumors whose nature is not aggressive and are usually well operable and do not tend to aggressively expand into the…