Thorax

Upper torso chest, thorax. It has a fixed component, the skeleton, and elastic muscles, which together form a solid space for internal organs, blood vessels and others.

Not only rigid but just muscle and bone structure provides the ability to move during breathing. The chest has a frustoconical shape, which is the anterior-posterior (ventrodorzálně) flattened.

Chest distinguish

Thoracic aperture (apertura thoracis superior) that is bounded by the breastbone (sternum), thoracic vertebra and the first rib.

Lower thoracic aperture (apertura thoracis inferior) is formed by the lower edge of the ribs, mečovitým tip of the sternum and 12th vertebrae, the thoracic spine.

Skeleton ribcage

Breastbone (sternum) is flat unpaired bone at the front of the chest. He is married with collarbones (Clavicula) and ribs (costa).

The ribs (costae) – ribcage consists of 12 pairs of ribs, from which seven pairs are called. Ribs right (Costa Verea), who are married with sternum through cartilage, 2 pairs of ribs false (Costa spuriae) that articulate cartilage cartilage overhead imposed by the ribs and the ribs 2 free(costae fluctuantes) ending freely in the muscle of the abdominal wall.

Rear side thorax then forms the vertebrae of the thoracic spine.

Chest muscles

Muscles covering the chest and arm (thorakohumorální)

  • musculus pectoralis major, minor (pectoral large, small)
  • musculus subclavius (subclavian)
  • musculus serreatus anterior (front serratus muscle)

The muscles around the ribs

  • Musculi intercostales external / internal / Inti – External / internal / innermost intercostal muscles
  • Musculi subcostales – muscles infracostal
  • Musculus transversus thoracis – stored muscle on the inside bottom of the sternum and adjacent costal cartilages

Another muscle, this time dividing the abdominal cavity from the chest is a skirt (diaphragm), which is the main breathing muscle.

The lining of the chest cavity

Pleura – shiny, smooth membrane

  • Visceral – covering bodies, pleura of the lungs (pulmonary pleura)
  • Parietal – pleura, urging the chest wall

The space between the parietal and visceral pleura pleural cavity in which a small amount of fluid, and helps to create a negative pressure for assisting breathing, keeps lungs rozepjaté.

Authorities in the rib cage

  • Heart (cor)
  • The lungs (pulmones)
  • Gullet (esophagus)
  • Sweetbreads (thymus)