Hypophysis (pituitary gland) is located under the hypothalamus, which is connected with “shank” in the recess sphenoid bone, which is called Turkish saddle (sella turcica).

It is an endocrine gland that has a size of about 1 cm and a weight of about 0.5 grams. It is possible to distinguish two lobes:

  • adenophypophysis
  • neurohypophysis

This gland is responsible for regulating the function of other endocrine glands.

The anterior pituitary hormones are produced. The secretion is affected by the hypothalamus and the negative feedback regulation of peripheral glands:

  • somatotropin (growth hormone, GH)
  • prolactin – (PRL) is essential during pregnancy, lactation supports, ie. the production of milk
  • adenokortkotropní hormone (ACTH) affects adrenal function
  • thyrotropin (TSH) affects thyroid function
  • gonadotropins – luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone, which promote the formation of sex hormones and activity of the gonads of both women and men
  • endorphins

The posterior pituitary hormones are formed, but getting there from the hypothalamus hormones – oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).