Peripheral nervous system

PNS is part of the nervous system, forming nerves and neurons that are found outside the CNS (brain and spinal cord). Peripheral nerves connect CNS receptors and with the management authorities. In peripheral nerve, may be up to several thousands of nerve fibers, interconnected by ligaments.

PNS is divided according to the place apart from the CNS and fiber type:

Spinal – the nerves leading emotion and pain (sensitive), or provide for movement (motor).Spinal nerves are divided into spinal and head.

Cranial nerves

  1. olfactory nerve
  2. optic nerve
  3. oculomotor nerve
  4. oculomotor nerve
  5. oculomotor nerve
  6. trigeminal nerve
  7. facial nerve
  8. sluchověrovnovážný nerve
  9. glossopharyngeal nerve
  10. vagus nerve
  11. accessory nerve
  12. hypoglossal nerve

Spinal nerves

31 pairs of nerves that withdraws from the spine. Each has two roots, one is on the move, the second on emotion and pain. 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal. Thoracic lead intercostal space, below the level L1, which is roughly around the kidneys, spinal cord itself ends and there is only a horse’s tail (cauda eqiuna), which consists of the spinal nerves. Therefore, in this area takes cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal canal – lumbar puncture.

Vegetative – or autonomic nerves are divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic, we can not control the will. It located in the smooth muscle of organs and cardiac muscle.

  • Sympathetic nerves – emerge from the spinal cord of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar. Sympathetic nervous system speeds up the heart rate and the mediator (transmitter) is a noradrenaline and adrenaline.
  • Parasympathetic nerves – emerge from the cross head and spinal cord. Parasympaticus slows heart activity and its mediator acetylcholine

These nerves on each other act as antagonists (opposing).

The peripheral nervous system is very important to transmit information from the brain to the various tissues. If the circuit is interrupted somewhere there is a paralysis or failure of a given area. If there are only a bruised nerve pathways it can save them. In the event of a complete break is a chance of a full recovery are remote.