Gullet (esophagus) is a muscular tube that is about 30-40 cm long, which is stored in the chest behind and next to the trachea in the lower parts. To enter the abdominal cavity through the hole in the diaphragm – esophageus hiatus. It consists of a dual musculature.

While its portion nearer to the oral cavity is of skeletal, therefore will the controlled muscle. Its lower part consists of a smooth muscle. Muscle esophagus allows shift morsels over its entire length and transported to the stomach – thus allowing peristalsis mucosa is normally folded into the longitudinal algae which are smoothed while passing through the bite.

Another important part of the esophagus esophageal sphincter (circular muscle reinforced) – these are the upper and lower sphincter. The upper opening and relaxes during swallowing bites, prevents the return of the lower content of acidic stomach contents back into the esophagus. Unlike the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract lining the esophagus stratified squamous epithelium.

Diseases of esophagus

Oesophageal disease is primarily manifested swallowing disorders, severity of chest pain behind the breastbone and so on.

The most common difficulties associated with the esophagus is called. Heartburn, or heartburn. This is a symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease, which leads to the return of the acidic chyme from the stomach back into the esophagus, which is not an acid-resistant enough.Gastroesophageal reflux disease can then go to esophagitis, an inflammation of the esophagus. Changes accompanying reflux disease can also cause Barrett’s esophagus, which is the original epithelium is replaced by another, typical for the lower intestinal tract. This condition is considered from prekarcinózu, thus a precursor of cancer.

Gastroenterologists may also meet with esophageal cancer, more often with esophageal varices, which is an extension of the venous plexus in the wall of the esophagus. The danger is their rupture and bleeding varices, which requires immediate medical assistance.

The esophagus may also be associated dysphagia, esophageal motility disorders or disturbances in the activity of esophageal sphincter – the limited ability of relaxation is part of a disease called achalasia others.