Endocrine system

An important system for the overall equilibrium between cells in the body. Part of the so-called. Humoral (cloth) system. Chemicals formed glands communicate and can influence the functions.The chemicals are due messengers, called hormones, blood conveyed into the respective cells. Therefore, the system is called humoral (fluid – hormones are transported throughout the body because body fluids). Hormones have different chemical compositions, which depend on what gland are made. Hormones can act a few minutes to days.

Endocrine system regulates and controls the human body, helps maintain proper internal environment (homeostasis), contributes to the growth of a person, stress relief and overall metabolism. Together with the nervous system coordinates the whole organism.

Glands and organs belonging to the endocrine system:

Hypothalamus

  • Part of the diencephalon associated vascular system (portal system) with adenohypophysis (anterior portion of the pituitary gland), and nerve fibers with neurohypophysis (posterior part of the pituitary).
  • Hypothalamus, nerve cells can respond and produce hormones like endocrine glands.
  • The hypothalamus regulates the activity actually a hormone in the pituitary gland (pituitary), and either activate or stimulate.

Pituitary (pituitary)

  • Central endocrine gland that is associated with the hypothalamus. They are divided into three basic parts, which form various hormones which remain governed by the entire organism.
  • Adenohypophysis – anterior pituitary hormones are producing growth hormone STH, prolactin LTH (development of mammary glands during pregnancy and after childbirth), thyroid stimulating hormone TSH (stimulates the production of hormones in the thyroid gland),follitropin (FSH promotes the growth of follicles and sex cells), lutropin LH (formation of sex hormones – estrogen, progesterone, testosterone), adrenocorticotropic hormone (stimulates growth of the adrenal cortex, melatonin and fat loss) and endorphins(happiness hormone – good mood, pain relief).
  • Pars intermedia – middle lobe produces lipotropin and melanocytes (stimulating hormones which are exact function know).
  • Neurohypophysis – posterior lobe produces antidiuretic hormone, ADH (reduced urine production in the kidneys), oxytocin (increases the contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during childbirth).

The pineal gland (pineal gland)

  • Unpaired diencephalon body part, produces the hormone melatonin (sleep hormone, in response to the darkness at night is his highest activity, supports healthy circadian rhythms of sleep / wake).

Thyroid

  • Lobed gland located at the end of the trachea in the front of the neck. Produces hormones thyroxine T4 (hormone binds iodine and affects cell metabolism) trijodthyroxin T3 (affecting thermoregulation, oxygen supply, the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates in the body) and calcitonin (reduced calcium levels and increase it in the bones).

Parathyroid glands

  • In the vicinity of the thyroid gland on the rear side two pairs of the parathyroid glands that produce parathyroid hormone (increased calcium in the blood).

Heart (Cor, Cardia)

  • In muscles of the atria produces a hormone called atrial natriuretic peptide ANP (stimulates the excretion of sodium, increased urination and relax blood vessels, preventing further formation of hormones that support these functions vice versa). The hormone also prevents hypertrophy (inadequate growth of tissue).
  • Also, blood vessels produce hormones that affect mainly on blood pressure. Endothelin (increased blood pressure – can lead to hypertension), nitric oxide (lowers blood pressure), prostaglandin (forms only in the arteries but in various tissues of the human body. It may increase and lower blood pressure, as needed).

Gastrointestinal hormones

  • Stomach and intestines hormones constitute support metabolism. Gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin (hunger).
  • The liver consists of hormone thrombopoietin (formation of blood platelets), angiotensinogen (increased blood pressure), somatomedin(growth).
  • Pancreas, there are hormones produced in Langenharsenových islands, which are responsible for optimal blood sugar. Insulin (lowers blood sugar), glucagon (balances blood sugar), somatostatin (growth of the body).

Kidney (renal)

  • Kidneys are important not only for the production of urine and filtering blood but also for the regulation of some blood components.
  • Hormone erythropoietin (promotes the growth of red blood cells), calcitriol (increased calcium in the blood) and renin (an enzyme not hormone secretion control of water and ions in the kidneys).

The adrenal glands (Glanduale suprarenalis)

  • They are stored in adipose housing kidneys and have rounded triangular shape. It is divided into two parts that make hormones.
  • Adrenal cortex her hormones are controlled by the hormone of the anterior pituitary. Cortisol (increases the body’s resistance to stress, increases the production of glycogen enhances the disintegration of lipids – fats, anti-inflammatory effect), aldosterone (keeping the levels of sodium and potassium), androgen (during adolescence – hair, typical features for girls and boys, best known androgen is testosterone).
  • The medulla of the adrenal glands make hormones adrenaline (increased heart rate and contraction, blood pressure increases, pupils dilate, increases the production of sweat, blood glucose increases, improves breathing through expansion of bronchi), noradrenaline(accelerated heartbeat) and dopamine. These hormones belong to the group. Ketacholaminů are important for the reaction of the organism to stress, increases the supply of oxygen and the organism better responding to stress. Then started the hormone cortisol, which the body can adapt to stress.

Skin

  • Calciferol (vitamin D), fusion (bonding) calcitriol (hormone affecting the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus)

Adipose tissue

  • The reservoir of energy, produces a hormone leptin (the body’s adaptation to fasting, regulates the stability of the internal environment, increased caloric intake, regulation of puberty, an increase in blood pressure).

This article is a general approach best known hormones in the body. All hormones performs its function and are an essential component in the organism. There are also sex hormones in women, estrogen and progesterone, testosterone in men. These hormones directly affect the reproductive activity of the organism, help with pregnancy and childbirth for women and men to the proper development of sperm.

Sicknesses of this body part:

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus

Description of diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus is a group of relatively rare diseases, whose essence is the disruption of the management body of water – either on the basis of endocrine and metabolic disorders, or kidney disease or psychogenic illness….

Goitre

Goitre

Description goitre Goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. Zoom can be for many reasons, the most famous being iodine deficiency. It may or may not be associated with impaired thyroid function. This increase may cause minor problems, such as difficulty…

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer

Description thyroid cancer In the beginning it is necessary to define the term cancer. The general public conceives cancer for cancer of any kind, which is not correct. The term cancer should be reserved only for epithelial malignant tumors –…

Precocious puberty

Precocious puberty

Description precocious puberty Puberty is a period of human life, which is characterized by the development of secondary sexual characteristics. It is a breast enlargement, voice changes, hair growth, muscle growth, facial hair, and changes in store body fat. Precocious…

Adrenal tumors

Adrenal tumors

Description of adrenal tumors The adrenal glands are two organs like kidneys or ovaries. It’s a combination of the endocrine glands, which includes two different bodies – the cortex and medulla. Endocrine glands, or endocrine, they are those that have…

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism

Description hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disease where the thyroid gland does not produce sufficient quantities of hormones. This disease is now fairly common disease that affects especiallywomen. In the Czech Republic suffer from approximately 15-20% of women aged around fifty…

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism

Description of hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is a relatively common disorder in which thethyroid gland produces more hormones (thyroxine andtrijodtyroxinu) than the body needs. The disease affects roughly 2% of the adult population and more women than men. In this disease in…

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism

Description hyperparathyroidism The prefix hyper- medicine indicates whether it is some kind of authority or function of the structure, it is always magnified than normal. Hyperparathyroidism is thus elevated parathyroid function. Parathyroids are four small glands, which are normally located at…

Cushing’s syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome

Description of Cushing’s syndrome Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder characterized by increased production of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Its necessity is to regulate carbohydrate metabolism and also in improving glycemic control (blood glucose) in…

Conn’s syndrome

Conn’s syndrome

Description Conn’s syndrome Conn’s syndrome or primary aldosteronism is not quite rare hormone (endocrine) a disease that is characterized by elevated levels of aldosterone in blood. Aldosterone is an important hormone produced by the adrenal glands. When primary aldosteronism adrenal…