The name of this part of the digestive tract – the duodenum (the duodenum) is derived from its length, which is about 12 inches. It is horseshoe and rolled into the crook of the “embedded” pancreas (Pancreas). They show the described parts: an initial section duodenal – pars superior, descending section – pars descending, the last section – pars inferior. The last part then consists of a horizontal part and ascending part. Stomach into the duodenum mouth, but also bile and pancreatic journey Vater papilla – duodenal papilla major. Acidic contents of the stomach mixes with bile and pancreatic juice with digestive enzymes (eg. Trypsin, chymotrypsin). It helps in the digestion of fats, their emulsification and proteins whose cleavage has already begun in the stomach. With pancreatic amylase they are further processed and cleaved and sugars.

Already in this first section of the small intestine is to absorb some part of the chyme – e.g. iron, sodium, water or certain medications.

Mucosa is formed monolayers of columnar epithelium extending into the villi, which include crypt cells, glands producing hormones, mucus alkaline nature, e.g. Brunner’s glands form mucus, bicarbonate, secretin, that increase the resorption surface duodenum. Mucosa is further arranged to eyelashes, it also ensures enlargement of the area of the intestine.

Duodenum jejunum continues – another part of the small intestine.

A common diseases are duodenum duodenal ulcers. These are caused by the presence of acid from the stomach into the duodenum, the mucosa is not resistant to acids, where the stomach acid and make up more if they are also weakened and protective mechanisms – the lack of neutralizing acid content deficiency protective mucin occurs “burns” mucosa. A complication then bleeding from the ulcer or perforation, which are conditions requiring acute medical intervention. A possible complication of duodenal obstruction is the scarring that can result in failure of patency. Other diseases affecting the duodenum are cancerous lesion.