Ankle

Ankle (articulatio talocruralis) is lower extremity joints to ensure the movement of the foot during walking.

Ankles are made contact several bones. These are the joints of both lower leg bones, a fibula(fibula) and shin (tibia). These form a joint well, a “fork”, which fits into the talus bone (talus).This creates talokrurální articulation. At a joint distinguish the inner ankle (medial malleolus)and outer (lateral malleolus).

With the construction of the ankle joint, it is possible to attract the foot up to 50 degrees and propnout up to 30 degrees from the line joint.Among other things, allows the joint movement also in the form of inversion, Extending and retracting the foot. It is also possible rotational movement.

In order to maintain joint stability is ensured by three ligamentous systems.

Ankle ligaments

The first system consists of connection tibia and fibula (tibiofibular syndesmóza). The second stabilizing element is the deltoid ligament, also known as the internal lateral ligament (ligament collateral medial) of the medial malleolus, other stabilizers ankle, this function is performed three ligaments (anterior and posterior fibulotalární / hleznolýtkový /, fibulokalkaneární / going from the fibula to calcaneus /).

Despite fibrous fixation of ankle sprains is very common, most often fibulotalární damaged ligament.

Muscles ankle

Muscles ensuring movement of the ankles and toes are located on the lower legs, and have long tendons that extend beyond the outer or inner ankle or fixated on the calcaneus, ie. The Achilles tendon.

Muscles that help stabilize the joint and moves are e.g. muscles

  • on the front of the lower leg – anterior tibial muscle (m. tibialis anterior), a long finger extensor (m. extensor digitorum longus) long thumb extensor (m. extensor hallucis longus)
  • the muscles on the side of the lower leg – Long and short calf muscle (m. fibularis longus, brevis)
  • muscles back of the lower leg – triceps surae muscle (m. triceps surae), long flexor of the big toe (m. flexor hallucis longus)