Adrenals

The adrenal glands (glandula suprarenalis) are paired endocrine glands, ie. The endocrine glands. They are located on the upper pole of the kidney. The size of the adrenal gland is about 5 x 3 cm and weight are about 10 g. The adrenal glands are stored in the ligament packaging to protect them from damage.

The adrenal gland is composed of two main parts:

Cortex – forms

steroid hormones glucocorticoids (cortisone) – have many functions, the most important is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (to stimulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis), protein and fat suppression reactivity of the immune system.
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) – hormones are important to maintain ion balance, fluid retention, increases the reabsorption of sodium.
sex hormones
Medulla – consists of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine), ie. The stress hormones preparing to flee or fight, faster heart rate, constriction of peripheral blood vessels, reducing the activity of the digestive system, enlarging the airways others.

Regulating hormone production

Superior center adrenal pituitary, which in lowering levels of steroid hormones adrenal excludes stimulating hormone (ACTH) hormone formation, i.e. there is a negative feedback.

Sicknesses of this body part:

Addison’s disease

Addison’s disease

Description of Addison’s disease Addison’s disease is infrequent but serious endocrine disorder that is characterized by reduced levels of hormones of the adrenal cortex with all its negative consequences for the body. Without adequate treatment can be fatal, thankfully, we…