Abdomen

Abdomen
The abdomen is the area from the diaphragm to the field of thorns hipbone. Creates abdominal (peritoneal cavity), which is delimited by the back side of the spine and muscle, both backbone and knapsack. Front and side borders of the abdominal cavity is ensured by the muscular layer. It consists of three muscle groups Front (ventral) direct abdominal muscle (rectus abdominis), which is divided in the midline fibrous band – linea alba, pyramidal muscle (musculus pyramidalis) Side (lateral) – these muscles are flat, wide and arranged in layers, among them external abdominal oblique muscle (m. obliquus externus abdominis) internal oblique muscle (m. obliquus internus abdominis) transversal abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) The back (dorsal) – muscles associated with the spine, back, ie. A square lumbar muscle (m. Quadratus lumborum). The abdominal wall is weak points, the risk for the development of hernias (hernia), for example. Inguinal canal (canalis inguinal...

Adrenals

Adrenals
The adrenal glands (glandula suprarenalis) are paired endocrine glands, ie. The endocrine glands. They are located on the upper pole of the kidney. The size of the adrenal gland is about 5 x 3 cm and weight are about 10 g. The adrenal glands are stored in the ligament packaging to protect them from damage. The adrenal gland is composed of two main parts: Cortex – forms steroid hormones glucocorticoids (cortisone) – have many functions, the most important is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (to stimulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis), protein and fat suppression reactivity of the immune system. mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) – hormones are important to maintain ion balance, fluid retention, increases the reabsorption of sodium. sex hormones Medulla – consists of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine), ie. The stress hormones preparing to flee or fight, faster heart rate, constriction of peripheral blood vessels, reducing the a...

Ankle

Ankle
Ankle (articulatio talocruralis) is lower extremity joints to ensure the movement of the foot during walking. Ankles are made contact several bones. These are the joints of both lower leg bones, a fibula(fibula) and shin (tibia). These form a joint well, a “fork”, which fits into the talus bone (talus).This creates talokrurální articulation. At a joint distinguish the inner ankle (medial malleolus)and outer (lateral malleolus). With the construction of the ankle joint, it is possible to attract the foot up to 50 degrees and propnout up to 30 degrees from the line joint.Among other things, allows the joint movement also in the form of inversion, Extending and retracting the foot. It is also possible rotational movement. In order to maintain joint stability is ensured by three ligamentous systems. Ankle ligaments The first system consists of connection tibia and fibula (tibiofibular syndesmóza). The second stabilizing element is the deltoid ligament, also known as the interna...

Appendix

Appendix
Blind intestine (cecum) forms a bag, which is located in the right iliac fossa, his červovitým spur of the appendix (pendeo, poise), which measures about 5-10 cm. Cecum is the link between the last part of the small intestine – ileum and ascending colon. Ileum from the cecum is separated so. Bauhin (Ileocaecal) flap. Cecum is about 6-8 cm long and so wide and about 6-7.5 cm. The better-known parts of the cecum is the appendix – wormlike appendage, which is not involved in the digestion and absorption of food, rather it can rank among the organs of the immune system, since in it, as well as in other parts of the intestine cells form aggregates. It is part of the so-called. Intestinal lymphoid tissue GALT (gut associated lymphoid tissue). Its location in the abdominal cavity is highly variable. We distinguish 6 positions appendix razed by frequency of occurrence: The pelvic (pelvic) – appendix is located medially from the cecum and extends into a small pan. Retrocaecal...

Bladder

Bladder
Bladder together with their kidneys and urethra our excretory system. It is hollow, highly extensible body that serves as a reservoir for urine. Human bladder has the ability to absorb 600 to 800 ml of this liquid, however, urge to urinate felt already at 150 milliliters. Location bladders vary according to its current volume. In the empty state is located at the bottom of the pelvic cavity. At full state extends into the abdominal cavity, or to the navel.Bladder itself may be transporting some way undesirable bacteria that are trying to get into the kidneys. This can be prevented by regular and increased fluid intake. However, they are diseases which relate directly to the bladder. One of these is inflammation, also called cystitis. The most common cause of this disease is the bacteria Escherichia coli. Other factors include prostate disease, gonorrhea, yeast infection, hormonal fluctuations, stress, diabetes, urethral trauma or blow to the abdominal cavity and subsequent bladder inju...

Blood vessels

Blood vessels
Blood vessels are part of the body, which distributes blood and sap. We share the arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and sap (into the blood from the lungs is freshly added oxygen), and the blood therein is a light red color. Conversely, veins carry blood and the sap to the heart, the blood is deoxygenated and has a darker color. Vascular diseases such as varicose veins, anemia, hemorrhoids and hypertension are often fetches the wrong lifestyle and eating habits. Their origin contributes a sedentary job, little physical activity, overweight, overeating, insufficient fluid intake but also polluted the environment and long-term exposure to stress. On his feet are vascular diseases manifest pale skin, feeling cold feet or lack of pubic hair and pains. Prevention of vascular disease includes sufficient movement, reduction in fatty foods, salt and sugar, suitable to alternating cold and hot water in the shower, while relaxing the limb giving higher tha...

Brain

Brain
The brain is the most important organ of the human body. In the brain, everything begins and ends. If the doctor determined brain-dead, man is dead. In the brain are guided complex operations, some man has discovered or explored. Where do thoughts? How is it that we can perceive pain, joy, sadness? How is it that we can show to remember different experiences and dream? All the questions we can not answer, but I firmly believe that human knowledge about the brain will continue to push and to all these questions once we know the answer. News from the world of the brain brain volume is 1450 m3, weighs approximately 1300 to 1400 grams, which corresponds to 2% of the human weight It contains from 50 to 100 billion nerve cells and synapses to billiard brain is divided into the brainstem, diencephalon and cerebrum consume 20% of the total glucose uptake by the human body a feeling of deja vu that the brain can recognize as similar or the same situation in which we once were the performance of...

Bronchi

Bronchi
Bronchus body is a tubular shape, which is part of the respiratory system. It is one of the main tube, which is extracted and supplied air the lungs. As bronchi denote two short split tube, from which then branches left and right sides of the bronchial tree. These small tubes, air is fed into the vicinity of the alveoli, where gas exchange takes place subsequently, which is known as breathing. Alone bronchus (or a smaller portion) is formed of smooth muscles and mucosa, which constitutes the mucus against drying or as a way of removing unwanted organisms and irritation. A common illness that body bronchitis, or bronchitis. It can be caused both virus and bacteria. The chronic form is more severe than the type of acute bronchitis. Bronchi, along with other authorities to ensure basic life functions. It is therefore not appropriate to their risk status. However, if we leave microscopic originator, we can for such diseases on their own. In winter it is a lack of dress code. Cold air will...

Central nervous system

Central nervous system
The most important part of the nervous system, the central nervous system. Here stimuli are evaluated and then sent back effectors for the authority, who can then respond. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord Brain managing and integrating body (all functions of the human body are controlled) It contains from 50 to 100 billion nerve cells and synapses to quadrillion brain is divided into the brainstem, diencephalon and cerebrum More information on the brain in a separate article here. Spinal cord neural tube inside the spine adjoining to the spinal cord in the brain Length is 40-50 cm, ending at the lumbar spine, where it disintegrates into individual nerve fibers spinal cord has 31 sections, from which on each side withdraws nerve fiber which controls an authority and region 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal in the middle of the spinal cord is a channel around it is gray matter (high number of neurons), gray...

Cervical spine

Cervical spine
The neck is the part of the body carrying the head and ensures its movements. Thanks to the axial supporting apparatus – páteřije cervical neck very mobile, a wide range of motions, including rotation. Cervical spine (cervical, cervical spine) is composed of seven vertebrae C1-C7 vertebrae located between the plates, discs (discus intervertebralis), which absorbs shocks, help in the movement. Construction of vertebral bone gives rise to the mailbox for the spinal cord. In each storey stepping down through the foramen otvrůky few vertebrae of the spinal nerves. The first two vertebrae atypical building, another building has been different. The first vertebra allow movement of the head. Connections that make these two vertebrae are craniovertebral, ie. Between the head and vertebrae, C1 – carrier atlas providing rocking movement of the head, does vertebral body has an annular shape with two articular surfaces, which is attached to the scum skull. C2 – čepovec Axis is re...

Circulatory system

Circulatory system
Blood circulation (cardiovascular system) is the distribution of nutrients and blood gases in all body tissues. It also serves as drainage products of metabolism. This process is controlled through the rhythmic contractions of the heart. In humans, then we are talking about closed circulation, which means that only the blood circulates in the vessels and are not empty into body cavities. We divide it into circulation a big heart and a small cardiac circulation. Large cardiac circulation (body) extends between the body and heart. Blood when it travels through the arteries of the left ventricle into the capillaries, after oxygenation returns through the veins back to the heart, which continues from the right ventricle into the small cardiac circulation. Small heart circulation (pulmonary) is an exchange of blood gases between the lungs and the heart. Deoxygenated blood moves through the arteries to the lungs and oxygenation after the vein moves from the lungs to the heart. Proper functio...

Colon

Colon
After the small intestine comes the colon. Guts I separated by a valve which prevents the reflux of chyme. The large intestine is much shorter than the small intestine, is about 1.5 meters. Colon Part of the large intestine are called: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid loop, then there is an appendix (cecum)and the last part of the anus (rectum). Nor should we forget wormlike projection – appendix. Colon function The most important function of the colon is absorption of water and electrolytes and the “storage” digesta and stool formation. Given that there has stopped so intense absorption of nutrients, missing a typical large intestine folds and villi. And bowel movements are slower. The movements performed by the large intestine, are mixing and peristaltic. Mixing movements are secured by the current contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle. Here it is important to get the digesta into contact with the intestinal wall. Peristalti...

Digestive system

Digestive system
Digestive system (apparatus digestorius) is a group of organs that are involved in receiving, processing and excretion of food. The main functions of the digestive system can be divided according to the type of performance: food intake digestion absorption removing digestible waste substances All these processes are controlled by neurogenic and humoral through the hormones which are formed directly in the digestive system....

Duodenum

Duodenum
The name of this part of the digestive tract – the duodenum (the duodenum) is derived from its length, which is about 12 inches. It is horseshoe and rolled into the crook of the “embedded” pancreas (Pancreas). They show the described parts: an initial section duodenal – pars superior, descending section – pars descending, the last section – pars inferior. The last part then consists of a horizontal part and ascending part. Stomach into the duodenum mouth, but also bile and pancreatic journey Vater papilla – duodenal papilla major. Acidic contents of the stomach mixes with bile and pancreatic juice with digestive enzymes (eg. Trypsin, chymotrypsin). It helps in the digestion of fats, their emulsification and proteins whose cleavage has already begun in the stomach. With pancreatic amylase they are further processed and cleaved and sugars. Already in this first section of the small intestine is to absorb some part of the chyme – e.g. iron,...

Ear

Ear
The ear is the organ of hearing that allows us to record audio. This comes oscillations of solids and spreading sound wave. Soundwave in humans causes auditory perception. The height of the resulting tone determines the sound frequency, ie the number of oscillations per second. The higher this frequency is faster, the higher is also the resulting tone. Tones of large wavelength; they have a low frequency and vice versa. The human ear can distinguish tones at frequencies from 16 to 20,000 Hz. On the final extent affects mainly old man. Older people, for example, higher frequency tones can no longer hear. construction ear The external ear (auris externa) We find in it the following three parts: pinna (auricula) – Beginning ear. It consists of elastic cartilage-shell external auditory canal (meatus External acustic) – 2.5 cm long tube, also called an audio channel. It consists of the cartilaginous and bone parts. On its surface hairs with sebaceous glands that produce earwax,...

Endocrine system

Endocrine system
An important system for the overall equilibrium between cells in the body. Part of the so-called. Humoral (cloth) system. Chemicals formed glands communicate and can influence the functions.The chemicals are due messengers, called hormones, blood conveyed into the respective cells. Therefore, the system is called humoral (fluid – hormones are transported throughout the body because body fluids). Hormones have different chemical compositions, which depend on what gland are made. Hormones can act a few minutes to days. Endocrine system regulates and controls the human body, helps maintain proper internal environment (homeostasis), contributes to the growth of a person, stress relief and overall metabolism. Together with the nervous system coordinates the whole organism. Glands and organs belonging to the endocrine system: Hypothalamus Part of the diencephalon associated vascular system (portal system) with adenohypophysis (anterior portion of the pituitary gland), and nerve fibers...

Esophagus

Esophagus
Gullet (esophagus) is a muscular tube that is about 30-40 cm long, which is stored in the chest behind and next to the trachea in the lower parts. To enter the abdominal cavity through the hole in the diaphragm – esophageus hiatus. It consists of a dual musculature. While its portion nearer to the oral cavity is of skeletal, therefore will the controlled muscle. Its lower part consists of a smooth muscle. Muscle esophagus allows shift morsels over its entire length and transported to the stomach – thus allowing peristalsis mucosa is normally folded into the longitudinal algae which are smoothed while passing through the bite. Another important part of the esophagus esophageal sphincter (circular muscle reinforced) – these are the upper and lower sphincter. The upper opening and relaxes during swallowing bites, prevents the return of the lower content of acidic stomach contents back into the esophagus. Unlike the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract lining the eso...

Excretory system

Excretory system
Urinary, urinary system includes upper and lower urinary tract. Bodies belonging to the excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. Basic functions urinary system Excretion – urine production and elimination of waste products, including products of nitrogen metabolism. Osmoregulation – control the volume of water, salt to maintain a balance in the internal environment and blood pressure. Maintaining acid-base balance – pH stability Dates associated with urination The formation and excretion of urine – diuresis runs continuously. Pledge of urine – anuréza. Increased production and excretion of urine – polyuria. Reduced production and excretion of urine – oliguria. Urinary frequency – micturition. urine Urine is happening in the upper urinary tract, the functional unit of the kidney – the nephron, composed of glomerular and tubular ball, canals. It happens when urine production Glomerular filtration (ultrafiltration), which...

Eyes

Eyes
The eye is a sensory organ that responds to light. This allows us to explore the world. Nowadays, most of the other human senses less necessary than before. According to some estimates, our eyes provide 80 to 95% of perceived sensations. However, it is not true for all. The human eye is like a camera. It consists of several important parts, which are themselves very important, but when one goes bad, it usually results in poor functioning of the entire system. Eye disease is quite a lot. This is so because the small and highly sensitive organ just slight changes in the internal environment. The most frequent disorders and diseases of the visual system are gray and glaucoma, refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, conjunctivitis, retinal detachment and strabismus. It would be useless to mention the various diseases because of their origin often can not control. They are usually caused by hereditary predisposition, microorganisms, physical injury, allergies and poor diet. Even though it...

Face

Face
A very important role both physically and mentally, playing face. Face is able to show a bad mood, happy or angry individuals. It can also draw attention to the disease, exhaustion or fatigue.Nowhere in the world can you find people who would have had the same face, a grimace or a baby. Not even identical twins are not exactly the same. Therefore, the structure of the face is very important for both personal life and example criminologist. The face is in many situations the only body part that points to the public and so we had a very good face care. That we have to face, eyes, nose and mouth knows about everyone, so in this article we will focus more on the interest that apply to the face. At its interesting features, speed and unique skills. Facial Eye Eye color may be hereditary, the human eye can distinguish 10 million colors We can not sneeze with your eyes open if it was an eye digital camera, should resolution of 576 megapixels yet the eye can not transplant, it is highly sensit...

Female genital organs

Female genital organs
Construction of reproductive organs in women is obviously different from that of the male, but still have one thing similar and even the same building, guess what the body is it? Read our article and you’ll know. Genitals women are especially important for reproduction. The uterus is ready for it, wear 42 weeks the fetus and then, thanks to an ingenious system of many glands and muscles to give birth. Read the main division of reproductive organs in women, you must come to things you do not know now. Function of reproductive organs in women Egg maturation and release from the ovary cortex, production of sex hormones, the realization of sexual union, if fertilization of an egg, creating a favorable environment for the development of the fetus and its birth. Efferent genital tract Fallopian tubes (tubae uterinae) – tube freely in the peritoneal algae on the pelvic wall are long about 13 cm, along with the ovaries form a so-called. Uterine appendages. The inner surface is cove...

Gallbladder

Gallbladder
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ saccate in the right half of the abdominal cavity. Used for storage of bile from the liver, which is then used in the digestive process. Gallbladder accommodate 30-50 ml of bile. Downs usually after a high fat meal. It is not necessary for life, but greatly helps to digest certain substances. Perhaps the most common diseases are gallstones. Suffer them approximately every tenth person, and 30% of people over 40. Risk factors are age, gender, lifestyle and hereditary disposition. The frequent occurrence of a pregnant woman and people already suffering from some diseases of the digestive tract. However, the biggest risk is the food and above all bold. Bile stored in the gallbladder has a certain amount of dissolved cholesterol. When receiving such a quantity that can not dissolve starts cholesterol together with other components of bile accumulate and form tiny grains. Larger quantities of these grains formed smaller stone, which then seals the outl...

Gum

Gum
Gum (gingiva) is part of the attachment apparatus of the teeth and is comprised of soft connective mucosal tissues. Gum is covered by alveolar bone of both jaws and tooth necks. Away from the teeth downwards passes into the mucosa lining the oral cavity, the transition between the mucous membranes is called mucogingival line. We can talk about more types of gum according to their location: Free marginal gingiva – it is a part, which is bordered tooth Connected gum – is the continuation of free gums, not moving against the base is firmly fixed to the periosteum (periosteum) of the alveolar bone Interdental, interdental, gum – form the interdental papilla, thus filling the space of the gums between the teeth Healthy gingiva is to be light pink, smooth, if present zarudne inflammation and swell in the case of anemia may be brighter white....

Hair

Hair
Hair for most people make headgear. Some of them have more, some less. Historical development we realized that we can with hair quite nicely work. Someone more fitting shorter Brown, another long blond. Unfortunately, even such a tiny part of our body like hair can suffer from many ailments. We recognize some of these basic problems: hair can be dry, oily, brittle, falling out and split ends. Advance should know that hair (as well as every other part of our body) needs for its proper existence of enough of some elements: iron, copper, zinc, iodine, proteins, lipids, water, amino acids and essential building blocks of the human body as carbon, hydrogen, , nitrogen and oxygen. Several missing elements can result in a change in hair texture, its weakness and deterioration. Complementing these elements occurs naturally as a food, but sometimes it’s too difficult journey. As an alternative we can use tablets, beverages (soluble or in the form of tea) or classic hair care products. The...

Hands

Hands
Hands are part of the body, which we manipulate with surrounding objects. Eyes provide retrieval of visual information from simplicity. Tactile provide us with your right hand. The most common problems our hands, concerning the skin. Even if you do not realize it sometimes, hands are used almost in all our activities. Their skin is very strained and often subject to outside influences such as rapid changes in temperatures or chemicals in the form of detergents and other contaminants. Do we take the hands of countless daily objects made of various materials, which may not be very pleasant skin. Therefore our hand skin quickly replaced. For these reasons, the skin is our hands are often dried. Loses its characteristics and begins to crack. Such difficulties, it is appropriate to defend hydrating or moisturizing creams, which are often enriched with herbs often to promote skin regeneration. Every organism can perceive the same product differently so it is better to try a greater variety o...

Head

Head
One of the most important parts of the human body is naturally head. The human head is actually our operating system, such as a computer. Currently, the definition of death based on the inactive brain activity, so if you do not work your brain, you’re clinically dead. That it is a brain and other sensory organs do not need further introduction. We do, however, in this article we will describe the basic division heads and the greatest attractions of individual organs. These bodies are then still get separate articles so that this information will be rather interesting. The head is divided into two basic parts: the brain and facial region. Every part of us, of course, used to something else, and each part is interconnected nerves and circulatory system, without which it would not exist. Building 28 of bones, which is the hardest brain box (cranium). The average weight of the human head is 4.6 kg. Hair serves as thermoregulation. Chewing and facial muscles are important for nutritio...

Heart

Heart
Heart (Latin: cor, Greece: καρδια – chard) is a muscle that is constantly pumped (pumping) blood to the cells of your body. Thus the supplies life essential oxygen and nutrients. The heart is divided into four sections: the left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and right ventricle. The heart works like a mechanical pump and an electrical organ at the same time. Electrical pathways of the heart undergoing pulses causing contractions of the cardiac muscle, thereby pumping blood through the body. Saving heart In mammals, the heart is placed in the chest between the lungs, breastbone (sternum axis) and the diaphragm. Externally it is covered by a fibrous sheath called the pericardium (pericardium).Inside the pericardium is a thin double membrane. In this narrow double bag is pericardial space filled with a small amount of fluid (liquor pericardii) which protects the heart from friction and impact. Heart wall consists of three layers: endocardium – film consisting of one lay...

Immunity system

Immunity system
Immunity is the ability of the organism to defend harmful substances and organisms (called antigens), which may originate from internal or external environment. Immunity can be divided into natural and acquired. In innate immunity inherit the ability (or not) reflect the disease from our ancestors or due to physiological structure of man (hard to attack us virus, which expires at 30 ° C). Conversely acquired immunity can change and we do it practically his entire life. Its essence lies in the fact that if our immune system encounters with the enemy, you do it in most cases the antibodies used either immediately or at the next meeting. From this moment we are against that disease for a long time protected. Such a process is rarely conscious. Our immunity varies when we change the environment in which we live. For longer stays in the dusty town (or vice versa in the countryside, where there is more grass pollen) to get in touch with other organisms and begin to defend them. The process o...

Joints

Joints
The joint is a part of the musculoskeletal system, which connects two or more bones and makes them move. The end portion of the bone is wrapped cartilage, which provides a contact surface with the adjacent cartilage bones. Both are closed cartilage in a joint package, which is called the articular capsule. This ensures a supply of synovial fluid – a fluid that is designed to lubricate the contact surfaces of the cartilages, thereby minimizing their destruction. However, due to certain diseases is one of the above functions of the joint changes in working harder. For example, the bottom will cause formation of crystals that get into the joint and the subsequent cutting-off of cartilage and bone. Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage loss.Malfunctions joint causing essentially the same or similar effects are also osteoarthrosis and arthritis . Deterioration of joint properties results have respective articulation injuries. However often we for these health complications we ourselves...

Kidneys

Kidneys
The kidneys are paired body deposited in the abdominal cavity on the sides of the spine. Their task is to filter the blood and removal of harmful substances resulting from metabolism in the organism. These are in the form of urine discharged from the body. Along with the urinary tract and bladder forms of kidney excretory system. The most common diseases affecting the kidneys is kidney inflammation. He gets into the body mostly urethra. If you do not have sufficient drinking regime, the bacteria causing inflammation in the bladder multiply without being washed away, and continue on to the kidney. There consequently occupies a kidney is thus weakened. For some untreated cases can lead to kidney failure. This disease suffer more women on grounds of shorter urethra. For men, the bacteria must undergo a longer route to get to the kidneys, which is often fatal to them. If you experience discomfort while urinating as burning or cutting especially in domočování, do not delay seeing a doctor....

Larynx

Larynx
Larynx (larynx) is a breathing tube in the shape of an hourglass. Positioned in front of the lower part of the esophagus and it is the first section of the lower airways. Construction of the larynx Laryngeal mucosa is lined by ciliated epithelium. Underneath is a layer prokrveného ligament, which is under the influence of inflammatory process may swell. It easily can lead to the closure of the lumen of the larynx and suffocation. Like the pharynx larynx is reinforced by cartilage.On the front surface of the larynx find thyroid cartilage, called Adam’s apple, which is remarkably raised males. Beneath it is stored cartilage ring.Other laryngeal cartilage is cartilage glottal that lies on the inner side. Among her voice is placed in the slot with strained ligaments hlasivkovými.Exhaled air these ligaments moves and thus form a human voice. All the cartilage are interconnected joints and ligaments, and forms the movable unit. Above the mouth of the larynx in the lower part of the pha...

Legs

Legs
The legs are the lower limbs, which allow us to move in a straight position, which we call walking.Faster versions of this movement is running. Due to different cultures and changing technologies legs are able to carry out virtually any kind of movement. We can swim, jump, climb and ride many kinds of surfaces, including water. However, due to certain diseases we can be such a fun quickly prepared. Ignoring the loss of functionality feet for violation of the spinal cord or brain, for most people consider the foot joints (hip, knee and ankle). This is so for several reasons. Joints, especially the smallest ankle, are most stressed parts of the body, since they have all the weight of man. Whole, not half, even though we really have two legs. When walking, one leg lifted to the next step and the other remains on the ground and maintains the balance of the body. Therefore, it is only a matter of time before you catch up with joint problems if you are overweight or obese. Thus, stress on jo...

Liver

Liver
The liver is the largest organ, providing energy metabolism and metabolism in the body. Located in the upper right abdomen and protects the ribs. It takes place c which more than 500 different processes, while 22 of them are absolutely necessary for life. The liver is the major detoxifying organ of the body – to neutralize toxins and other harmful substances (nicotine, drugs, alcohol, drugs, …) which are sent to the kidneys to eliminate. One of the most important tasks is to maintain blood sugar levels, the construction of some proteins and conversion of some excess amino acids in urine. In the liver, bile is also formed, which then transitions into the gallbladder and the duodenum breaks down difficult to digest fats easier. These important processes can slow or stop the serious liver disease, the most common viral origin – hepatitis. May be dangerous and high levels of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Disease called chronic liver inflammation leads to sca...

Lower digestive tract

Lower digestive tract
Lower digestive tract builds on top of that mechanically processed food and spend. The lower portion then is intended to absorb nutrients from the chyme. This occurs most intensively in the small intestine to increase the absorptive surface of the intestine, is provided with villi, mikrokly. Mixing movements chyme makes contact with the intestinal wall and the peristaltic movements of her shift intestine. In the small intestine, its two sections (jejunum and ileum), a length of 3-5 meters, are absorbed electrolytes – thus the ions, minerals sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, iron, water and also both types of vitamins, i.e. water-soluble and fats. Further absorption of nutrients are digested carbohydrates. Only absorbable monosaccharides – simple sugars. Final cleavage disaccharides takes place on the surface of intestinal cells (enterocytes). Neither protein is wasted, however, they must be digested into amino acids and di- and tripeptides. Fats (lipids) are absorbed as...

Lower respiratory tract

Lower respiratory tract
Lower respiratory tract includes the area from the epiglottis (epiglottis) after lung. Thus comprise the larynx (larynx), trachea(windpipe), bronchi (bronchi), which are divided into orders, according to the place where the lungs are, e.g. lobar (lobed), bronchioles(bronchioles), terminal bronchi, which divided into the respiratory (breathing) bronchi, alveoli(alveoli). The most important function of the lower respiratory tract is to deliver air to the alveoli, the air sacs where gas exchange occurs.Penetrates into the blood oxygen exchange for carbon dioxide which is exhaled. Moreover, it also functions airways cleansing due řasinkovému epithelial glands is to capture impurities and their transport back to the upper respiratory tract to be expectorated and neměstnaly and clogged airways....

Lower urinary tract

Lower urinary tract
Lower urinary tract consists of the bladder (vessica urinaria) and urethra, urethral. Lower urinary tract Intake and excretion of urine formed kidneys. Ureter urine is transported into the bladder, which collects this and filled. During achieve normal load will be a sense of urgency. And the contents of the bladder is transported from the body through the urethra – the evacuation of the bladder. The bladder (Vesica urinaria) is a hollow body whose walls consist largely musculature. Its function is collecting. It is stored in a small saucepan over pubic symphysis. It flows into both ureters, ureters, urethra and results, urethra, and in a place that is called the trigone. The bladder muscle has three layers – external and internal longitudinal and circular. These produce muscle called detrusor musculus, which has an ejection feature. The shut-off function then has the sphincter muscle (musculus sphincter vesicae). Both muscles are involuntary. Another part of the lower urina...

Lumbar spine

Lumbar spine
Lumbar spine (lumbar, lumbar spine) consists of 5 lumbar vertebrae L (vertebrate lumbales). These are broad, kidney-shaped. The largest of the vertebrae. The last lumbar vertebra is annealed to the sacrum (os sacrum) to form the lumbosacral joints which is “filled” intervertebral plate and creates a classic up – promotorium. The lumbar spine is extremely mobile, but also the most wounding and overloading. Lumbar vertebra is composed of: Vertebral body (corpus vertebrae) is filled with bone marrow and abuts on the intervertebral disc (discus intervertebralis) L5 vertebral body is higher at the front than at the back Vertebral arch (arcus vertebrae) lofty and forms together with the body space for the passage of the spinal cord The spinal processes (processus vertebrate) Articular processes (processus articulares) – emerge from the vertebral arch and create areas for meziobratlovému connection (articulationes intervertebrales) Transverse processes (processus Trans...

Lung

Lung
The lungs (pulmones, pneumonitis) are paired spongy body which is responsible for the transfer of oxygen from the air to the blood and elimination of carbon dioxide from the blood into the air. It is the ventilation, which is air flow in the lungs. Ventilation is composed of inspiration, isnpiria, which is an active process, which withdraws the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, leading to an increase in volume of the thoracic cavity, which enhances the vacuum to be sucked air. Exhale, expirium, the plot is passive, rozepjaté walls themselves shrink and the air enters the lungs. The gas exchange between the inhaled air and blood occurs in the alveoli, alveolar, on the basis of concentration gradients, a simple diffusion and pH. The lungs are also a body that is involved in maintaining a constant pH, ie in acid-base balance....

Lymph node

Lymph node
Lymph, lymph nodes (nodi lymphatic) is a body which has an oval to spherical shape. They are great about 1-25 mm. In the case of inflammation or tumors leads to enlargement of lymph nodes and can be painful. They are a place where there are a large number of immune system cells. To lymph nodes enter via lymph vessels (vasa afferentia). Sap flows through the lymph nodes and there is a filtration, purification. There are groups of lymph nodes, ie. Regional lymph nodes, which is a group of nodes that receive lymph from certain sites, areas of the body: Head (capitales) – in the ears, submandibular, in the parotid salivary gland, sublingual … Cervical (cervicales) – superficial and deep, on the side and front of the neck Axillary (axillares) – consists of several groups of lymph nodes, whether they are central nodes, side, close to the pectoral muscle, or subclavian others. Thoracic (thoracic) – chest wall nodules, nodules internal organs in the thorax (medias...

Male genital tract

Male genital tract
We need not here writing long-winded story about what a man’s genitals are and for what it is. In this article we will focus purely on anatomical detail and attractions that the male genital tract hiding. The male reproductive system consists of external and internal organs. Some of these bodies are paired some are not. The entire unit is the indispensable system in reproductive function. Management genital tract hypothalamus, anterior pituitary through hormones, regulates the production of testosterone testes produce the hormone testosterone Sertoli cells direct spermatogenesis (formation of sperm) Testosterone ensures the development of the male genitalia type of fetus after puberty causes the growth of external genital organs development of secondary sexual characteristics (voice, body hair, building the skeleton) stimulates the production of the hormone which regulates hematopoiesis (erythropoietin) The external genital organs Penis (penis) – coupling organ in the flacc...

Memory

Memory
Memory is the ability to store information, and also partly operate with them. There are many memory division. According to the time remembering we can be divided into short and long term.Short-term memory stores and filters the most recent 30 seconds. Long-term memory stores filters and processes from the last 30 seconds until the first childhood memories. It is important to mention filtering process. Brain is useless to keep any information that it blows over. Therefore, we retain only the information that we think are important for us something. There are people who remember little. And then there are people who remember even less. Of course there are people who would say that they remember a lot, but these are very few.Most people often talk about situations that remember little or not at all (child’s first steps, the first day of class …). The aim is to tease his memory and memory recall. Often it is impossible because the memory was given filtered. However, there are...

Muscles

Muscles
The muscle is simply an authority which carries out its functions movement of the body or its parts.It is formed by muscle tissue, which is capable under appropriate conditions of enormous withdrawal and rebound. Skeletal muscles kind is clamped to the bone by tendons. By varying the length, muscle presses or pushes the bone. The muscles to work properly, we need to deliver adequate energy. Now muscles are one of the biggest consumers of our energy. But they also need the amount of minerals and water. If you do not give your body sufficient amounts of necessary nutrients, it will appear on our performance. Muscles belongs to our motion system as well as the bones or joints can suffer from many diseases. It is necessary to take care of our muscles, even if we are not professional athletes. Even when relaxing sport is very necessary to warm up. Muscles work most effectively when the blood supply. Stretching should take at least 5 minutes. Mentioned diseases are often caused by muscle inj...

Muscular system

Muscular system
One of the most important parts of the human body are undoubtedly muscles. It is a muscular system which is of great importance when walking and in the overall motion. Muscular system consists of three basic groups of muscles. Each muscle group is specific, otherwise the controls and operates on a different kind of movement. Muscular system using bones and tendons form a movement and supporting system of the human body. Without this system, we could not move and would not hold together. Active movement of the muscle system does not focus only on the overall human movement, but also to individual organs and parts. Science, which examines the muscles called myology. lean body Beginning – where the muscle begins Upon – where the muscle ends, where the clamps Muscle belly – the largest and most powerful muscle instead Tendon – ligaments, which helps muscle clamping Fascia – the fascia muscle, protecting muscle muscle function The basic properties of each muscl...

Nails

Nails
Nail is hard to finish all 20 fingers of the human body. Even though it might be hard to believe, is evidence that not all of our ancestors is used as an exhibition hall for their artistic talents or gel as a repository colleagues. Fingernail is especially protective significance and its construction allows for much finer perception of the pressure our fingers. A healthy nail has a minimum thickness in newborns. Nails are so sharp that can cause serious damage to the face or eyes, if there are two children against each hostile. The strongest nails boast the oldest people, because the nail grows progressively throughout life, even though in the age of speed may slow down. The most common problem is a nail their excessive brittleness and fragility. This can cause a deficiency of certain vitamins and trace elements, but mostly due to the excessive drying of various detergents, paint strippers and other chemicals. If possible, protect your hands preservatives.Restoration of natural oil hel...

Nasopharynx

Nasopharynx
Nasopharynx (nasopharynx) is the first section of the pharynx. It is a hollow cylindrical shape. As part of the respiratory tract is lined by respiratory epithelium nasopharynx. The property is close to lymphoid tissue known as adenoids. Middle ear Eustachian tube connects the pharynx (auditory tube). Its function in the human body is a pressure equalization in the middle ear. Connection with the cavity of the nasal cavity of the ear works, unfortunately, as a way to transmit infection. Attack pneumococcus can cause inflammation of the middle ear. Diseases of the nasopharynx As a result of swollen adenoids occurs adenoids. A common viral disease is pharyngitis, manifested mainly sore throat and runny nose later....

Neck

Neck
The term is called neck back of the neck, which together govern the head and torso. It consists of several muscles that are more layers placed in front of the cervical spine. Its function is primarily mechanical – allows a person to move his head. Main types of muscles Deep muscles of the neck Four muscles between C1 (carrier) and C2 (čepovcem), and occipital bone. Their function is to rotate the head, bending it and zaklánět.Determine its position. If in a certain position long time, leads to their blood supply, which produces pressure and neck pain. Sometimes also occur dizziness. lifting heads Also rocking the head. Large spindle-shaped muscle located at the sides of the neck. Due to its position, we often feel the muscle tension. It begins at the end of the sternum and clavicle bones, ends behind the auricle to the insertion tip of the temporal bone. He raises his head and works as an auxiliary breathing muscle. Sloping neck muscles Also known as the muscles pitch. They range...

Nervous system

Nervous system
In this article we look at general information – what the nervous system actually is, what it is for, what are the basic units and the information spreads throughout the body. The nervous system is very important for disseminating information throughout the body.Captures impulses from organs and cells, is transported into the brain, where it is evaluated and then sends the appropriate response. The nervous system is divided into central and peripheral NS NS. CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, PNS all other parts of the nervous system. Neuron Basic structural and functional unit of the neuron NS. Their nutrition and provide support to NS glial cells. Neuron consists of body (soma) and projections – the dendrites and neurites (axons). Dendrite information leading to cell axon withdraws from the cell body and conveys information in the form of impulses from nerve cells. The axons are wrapped in myelin, the packaging is important for conduction and axon protection. Synapse...

Nose

Nose
The nose is the olfactory organ, which allows humans to feel and distinguish smell. Formed by the nasal cavity (cavum nasi). Besides sensory function it works also for heating and humidifying the air prior to entry into the respiratory tract and as a primary barrier against infection. Construction of the nasal cavity The nasal cavity is divided into three passages turbinate – upper, middle and lower. Back follows the nasopharynx, through holes, so called Choan. Unevenly it is also divided into two halves, whose outputs are nostrils. When entering them skin covered with hairs, which serves as protection from harmful external influences. At the olfactory mucosa can find field (regio olfactoria). This yellowish site allows us to perceive odors. Diseases of the nose The most common internal diseases of the nose is rhinitis (runny nose), which is also one of the most common diseases in general. From the outside, the nose may be vulnerable to skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcin...

Oral cavity

Oral cavity
Entry into the oral cavity (vestibulum oris) is bounded by the lips, face and dental arches, the very mouth then defines the soft and hard palate, cheeks and tongue. The facilities include a large salivary glands – submandibular (submandilulární), sublingual (sublingual) and parotid (parotid).The oral cavity is a place phonation, taste perception and food processing first. The most important action taking place in the oral cavity, the pulverization of food and its mixing with saliva. This is done by chewing, that involves the teeth on the one hand and, secondly, head muscles, most of them chewing muscle (musculus masseter). At this moment begins the process of digestion. Saliva is also contain digestive enzyme alpha amylase, which breaks down starches, ie complex carbohydrates to simpler sugars. Furthermore amylase is salivary mucin, which is formed and other sections of the digestive system, and has a protective function. An essential component of saliva is also lysozyme which i...

Pan

Pan
Pelvis (pelvis) is the term more broadly refers to the lower torso, a human body part below the belly and above the legs, with four-legged mammals, the body part between the abdomen and tail.In a narrower sense the term refers only skeleton itself pans. Pelvic region is bounded by bone structures, these are the pelvic ring formed Sacrum (os sacrum) Pubic bone (pubis) Hip bone (ilium) Ischium (os Ischia) In front of the bones in the pubis, gristly plate. In the rear part there is sacroiliac joint (křížokyčelní). In a pan for better orientation distinguish several levels Pelvic plane entrance (aditus pelvis), apertura pelvis superior The plane pelvic width (amplitude pelvis) – Central part of the pelvis The plane pelvic Strait (Angustia pelvis) located beneath the pubis The plane pelvic East (exitus pelvis), apertura pelvis inferior Construction of the basin has sex differences that are given mainly due to the passage of the female fetus through the birth canal. The pelvis is compl...

Pancreas

Pancreas
Pancreas (Latin pancreas) is a gland with internal and external secretion, which can be found stored in the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm dome. Its size is about 25 cm and has the shape of an elongated lobe. Weight is about 80 g. Empties into the small intestine, specifically in the first section – the duodenum. Here, the production of enzymes involved in digestion. An important function of the pancreas but also hormone production. Construction pancreas head (caput) – the largest part of the body, small and large development Pancreatic connects to the small intestine. body (corpus) tail (cauda) Breakdown by function into two glands Endocrine glands (endocrine glands) Produces and discharged into the blood hormones, particularly insulin, and glucagon. These hormones are formed by means of the islets of Langerhans – cell group that extends the entire length mucosa. Insulin – regulates blood sugar levels and encourages its entry into the cell, creating a sou...

Peripheral nervous system

Peripheral nervous system
PNS is part of the nervous system, forming nerves and neurons that are found outside the CNS (brain and spinal cord). Peripheral nerves connect CNS receptors and with the management authorities. In peripheral nerve, may be up to several thousands of nerve fibers, interconnected by ligaments. PNS is divided according to the place apart from the CNS and fiber type: Spinal – the nerves leading emotion and pain (sensitive), or provide for movement (motor).Spinal nerves are divided into spinal and head. Cranial nerves olfactory nerve optic nerve oculomotor nerve oculomotor nerve oculomotor nerve trigeminal nerve facial nerve sluchověrovnovážný nerve glossopharyngeal nerve vagus nerve accessory nerve hypoglossal nerve Spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves that withdraws from the spine. Each has two roots, one is on the move, the second on emotion and pain. 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal. Thoracic lead intercostal space, below the level L1, which is roughly aroun...

Pharynx

Pharynx
Pharynx (Latin pharynx) is funnel-shaped tube with a length of 12-15 cm. Crosses in her airways and digestive system. It stretches from the base of the skull to the sixth cervical vertebra, from which it distributes to the larynx (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach). Pharynx is reinforced by cartilage, lined with mucous membrane and its wall consists of connective tissue and striated muscles. Pharynx consists of the following three sections nasopharynx (nasopharynx) – two holes in it orifice vents. It houses the Eustachian tube, which connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear. In it helps equalize the pressure. Nasopharynx contains lymph nodes – adenoids. middle section (oropharynx) – oral pharynx, which serves for breathing and swallowing. Enclosed by the soft palate, tongue and root-storey arches. Also here is the lymphoid tissue in the form of multi-storey (cervical), almonds, lying between the two arcs. laryngeal section (l...

Pituitary

Pituitary
Hypophysis (pituitary gland) is located under the hypothalamus, which is connected with “shank” in the recess sphenoid bone, which is called Turkish saddle (sella turcica). It is an endocrine gland that has a size of about 1 cm and a weight of about 0.5 grams. It is possible to distinguish two lobes: adenophypophysis neurohypophysis This gland is responsible for regulating the function of other endocrine glands. The anterior pituitary hormones are produced. The secretion is affected by the hypothalamus and the negative feedback regulation of peripheral glands: somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) prolactin – (PRL) is essential during pregnancy, lactation supports, ie. the production of milk adenokortkotropní hormone (ACTH) affects adrenal function thyrotropin (TSH) affects thyroid function gonadotropins – luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone, which promote the formation of sex hormones and activity of the gonads of both women and men endorphins The posterio...

Prostate

Prostate
This is an additional sexual gland looks like a chestnut. It is located under the bladder and urethra abuts the beginning. Very often can zduřet and for men it is an unpleasant disease. Some doctors believe that women also have their prostate, called the Skene’s glands. Construction of the prostate Body that is muscular-Himalayan balsam, consisting of glands that produce secretions off-white. The prostate has five basic parts of childhood that gradually merge into one body. Flesh is smooth and obviously can not control her will. Since the prostate is stored next to the rectum is the examination is carried out this way. This might be a little uncomfortable, but it usually is not painful and takes only a few minutes. Function The main function of the prostate is the addition of ejaculate. Mixed with the sperm and its share to 25%. It adds color and typical ejaculate sperm is able to protect and help them to deliver to the egg. Without the hormone testosterone gland can not function...

Rectum

Rectum
The last part of the digestive system is made up of the anus (rectum) with the anus (anus). These structures are located in the pelvis or rectum is about 12-16 cm long and 4 cm wide and is equipped with a sphincter – the internal sphincter will not be influenced by the smooth muscle, the outer is created by skeletal muscles, and it is possible it will affect. In the closed ampoule rectal sphincter collects stool that is removed from the body by a process called defecation. Growing filling the rectal walls expand and stretch receptors (nerve endings) in the wall of the rectum help relax smooth-muscle-internal anal sphincter, which is not susceptible to clearance.Simultaneously, it is ensured contraction of the external anal sphincter will capable of being influenced, which is innervated by the sacral (cross) plexus. These processes are called triggers. Myenteric reflex, which makes the signal goes to the sigmoid colon (sigmoid) and will generate strong peristaltic waves and shifti...

Reproductive system

Reproductive system
In this article we describe in general what are the main functions of the reproductive system, and what are the main differences between men and women, not only in a physical way. We write here a few interesting things that you might not know about the sexual system. This is a general introduction, which will be complemented by separate articles on male and female sex organs and their functions. The main features of the reproductive system Also also reproductive and reproductive system is a system of organs and glands, which are designed to form sex cells with unique genetic information and then pass this information to offspring. Organs of the reproductive system may be divided into inner (testes, ovaries) and outer (penis, vulva). These bodies include the accessory organs, mammary glands in women. An important complement to the reproductive system are hormones that promote the maturation of sex cells, caring for smooth pregnancy, childbirth and subsequent lactation. The most importan...

Respiratory system

Respiratory system
Respiratory system enables living organisms to live necessary gas exchange. In humans and other mammals are main parts of the respiratory system of the lungs. Respiratory system is responsible for the intake of air into and out of the lungs during breathing, that is for gas exchange. Respiratory system of humans and animals can be divided into two functionally distinct parts.The first inlet portion has the task of heating, humidification and purification of air entering the lungs. Second, respiratory part, is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air. Other important functions include maintaining the balance of the internal environment (pH), and vocalization (human formation of speech)....

Root of the tooth

Root of the tooth
Dental root (radix dentis) is part of the tooth that is not visible as it is received and fixed in the alveolar bone by means of dentoalveolar connection. The roots are tipped tip – apex radicis dents. Inside the tooth there is a cavity (cavitas dentis)which merges into a root canal (canalis radicis dentis). In the cavity is puple (marrow), blood vessels that supplies the tissue with nutrients and nerves that lead painful impulses to the brain. Circuit cavity root canal is lined by cells – odontoblasts. Teeth tend to have one to four channels, the number of channels increases with bearing tooth back teeth have more. The roots of each tooth are different. While eg. The upper incisor has a massive circular cross-section at the root, stools tend to have more of them and they can grow together....

Sight

Sight
Sight is our most frequently used sense. Of all the senses, it gives us the most information, and also his most confident. Body is the eye. This is a very complex organ, which is prone to adverse effects. Like the camera consists of several parts. The most basic are the lens and retina. Lens passes light rays that are normally converge on the retina. Unfortunately lens has a very limited ability to regenerate. Options are great visual impairment. Leaving mechanical injuries, we can talk about four basic types. Excessive amounts of UV radiation has an adverse impact on our retina and lens.Furthermore, the eye is our body against these effects, at least to some extent, protected skin.The risk is much greater in equatorial regions or in the mountains. So use good sunglasses. Cigarette smoke, smog or industrial exhalations are substances whose composition is irritating to the eye and brings free radicals. Eye strain while poorly lit actions tired eye muscles. The last factor is the poor di...

Skin

Skin
The skin is the last layer of skin. They form a sort of container of the human body, which is partially made up of dead cells that are constantly being replaced by others. The skin itself acts as a cell membrane with the tissues of our body. Ensures skin respiration, prevents the entry of certain undesired substances on the other hand removes waste products from the body. In living skin layers are placed sensitive nerves, through which we can perceive roughness, temperature and surface of the object. The skin is also placed roots of the hair, beard and hair. The protective layer of our body is really big and it really depends on it a lot, but sometimes we take care of her little or nothing. Most stressed skin on the hands and feet, because her hands are working, eating and not doing countless acts. The skin on the feet is alternately subjected to pressure, the cells become hard to form a stronger harder layer, which is resistant to drsnějšímu and uneven surface. But the skin on your ha...

Skull

Skull
The skull forms a very important part of our body. It is an important safeguard for our brain and senses. Major construction unit consists of bones, muscles, blood supply to part of the brain and face, as well as the nerves that allow us to respond to external stimuli. The skull is a frequent target of injuries when a small shock can cause serious brain damage, plus permanent dysfunction. Therefore, you need a skull and head of generally protect. Dividing bones The skeleton of the skull is formed by a plurality of bones, which are, with the exception of the lower jaw, connected with each other. Facial The upper jaw (maxilla) – consists of a body and projections. Projections are for example the upper floor and beds for teeth. In the body cavity is large – the largest is the nasal cavity. Cheek bone (os zygomaticum) – located below the eye, its temporal projection is associated with facial projection and form the zygomatic arch. Storey bone (os palatinum) – forms...

Small intestine

Small intestine
After the duodenum (duodenum) small intestine continues into the section entitled jejunum(jejunum), which is long over 1.5 meters. The third part of the ileum of the small intestine (ileum)measuring about a meter. The main function of the small intestine unlike the upper digestive tract, where digestion takes place mainly, the absorption of nutrients from the gut into the bloodstream, thus intestine and richly vascular supply. But even here there is a “dotrávení” some components of food. Consequently, it is necessary that the resorptive surface as large as possible so she intestine length and magnification resorptive area folds, villi and microvilli, which creates a form of a fine brush. This mechanism leads to increase the absorption surface intestine up to 300 m2. The intestine is lined with a single-layer columnar epithelium, in which there are many specialized cells that are adapted to the absorption of nutrients – enterocytes, goblet cells which produce the prote...

Smooth muscle

Smooth muscle
A group of muscles which can not be controlled will, these are muscles that form the walls of most of the organs in the human body. Smooth muscle is controlled by nerves and hormones. Smooth muscle is present, for example in the intestine, uterus, vascular walls, prostate or kidney. Thanks to its features, the smooth muscle contracts and helping to move the body. Every muscle moves differently and it also needs a different intensity, this move is in charge of our autonomic system that knows exactly what the muscle download. Like striated muscles and smooth muscles is made actin and myosin, which activates contraction....

Stomach

Stomach
Stomach (ventriculus, Gaster) is a muscular organ saccate associated with the esophagus. It is stored in the abdomen below the left dome of the diaphragm. Curved shape recalls the bag. Anatomically thereon we describe curvature esophagus entry and exit into the duodenum (the duodenum). These are anatomical regions: Major Curvature – a curvature of the left edge, ie bowing down left, Curvature minor – is the name for the right edge curvature whose concavity faces upwards to the right, cardiea or screen – which is the inlets esophagus to the stomach pylorus or pylorus – the last part of the stomach, the constriction, which follows the duodenum. Furthermore, we can stomach to describe its various sections – fundus ventriculi (bottom) – part closest to the diaphragm, the corpus ventriculi – body and pars pyloric stomach (pyloric) – an area where it passes into the esophagus. When eating the stomach may increase, its size is therefore variable...

Striated muscle heart

Striated muscle heart
Muscle, which is the most atypical and has a striated muscles, but can not control it will. This is called muscle myocardium forming heart. This muscle has one function and the downloading of the heart. Cardiac muscle cell contains actin and myosin. Nutrients obtained through the coronary arteries. In the event of a blockage, this is a very well-known diseases of civilization – Myocardial infarction.3  ...

Striated muscle skeletal

Striated muscle skeletal
Muscle group, which we will operate. These are the muscles that can hold and move the whole person. These are the muscles of the lower and upper limbs, back and abdomen. Muscle is called skeletal, because in most cases being clamped to the bone of our system. An exception is the muscle of the pharynx, esophagus, diaphragm and tongue. Striated muscles are composed of bundles of muscle, the muscle snopečkem are formed, which are divided into the muscle fibers, which conceal the muscle cell myofibrils. Myofibrils consist of two basic molecules actin and myosin. Mutual interaction of these molecules causes muscle contraction and relaxation. The longest muscle of the human body is the sartorius muscle Gluteal muscle is the most powerful The smallest is the stirrup muscle, which is located in the ear...

Teeth

Teeth
Teeth (tooth Latin dens) are one of the hardest parts of the body. They are placed in the wells of dental oral cavity and help people to handle and mechanically pulverize food ingestion. With tongue and saliva are thus beginning the digestive system. Teeth form two arches – upper and lower. These arcs also include gums, and the edges of the jaws. All together we call teeth – dentition. Structure of the tooth crown – extends above the gums. Is coated tooth enamel (email), which is a mineral composition hardest substance in the body. After damage, however, not capable of regeneration. neck Root – is coated with cement and placed. It passes through the root canal, through which the teeth penetrate the nerves and blood vessels. Now the amount of the nerve causes frequent sensitivity and toothache. The basic component of the tooth’s dentine – DENTIA. The composition of this yellow-white mass is similar to that of bone. Inside we find the tooth pulp cavity...

Thoracic spine

Thoracic spine
Thoracic spine (thoracic, thoracis spine) forms the largest part of the spine. It consists of 12 thoracic vertebrae Th (vertebrate thoracicae). Thoracic vertebrae are composed of the vertebral body (corpus vertebrae) that increases with vertebrae downwards (caudal) is relatively high compared to other parts of the vertebrae in the spine. Carry facets that make creating a joint vertebrae with ribs. Between the vertebral bodies lying intervertebral disc (Disc intervertebrales) that provide shock absorption, mobility, slip. Vertebral arch (arcus vertebrae) together with the vertebral body produces spinal canal (canalis vertebral artery) The spinal processes (processus vertebrate) Articular processes (processus articulares) with flats, enabling the creation of joint intervertebral joints (articulationes intervertebrales) Transverse processes (processus Transverse) Spinous projection (processus spinosus) extends rearwardly and can be palpated Vertebrae also creates holes (vertebral foramen)...

Thorax

Thorax
Upper torso chest, thorax. It has a fixed component, the skeleton, and elastic muscles, which together form a solid space for internal organs, blood vessels and others. Not only rigid but just muscle and bone structure provides the ability to move during breathing. The chest has a frustoconical shape, which is the anterior-posterior (ventrodorzálně) flattened. Chest distinguish Thoracic aperture (apertura thoracis superior) that is bounded by the breastbone (sternum), thoracic vertebra and the first rib. Lower thoracic aperture (apertura thoracis inferior) is formed by the lower edge of the ribs, mečovitým tip of the sternum and 12th vertebrae, the thoracic spine. Skeleton ribcage Breastbone (sternum) is flat unpaired bone at the front of the chest. He is married with collarbones (Clavicula) and ribs (costa). The ribs (costae) – ribcage consists of 12 pairs of ribs, from which seven pairs are called. Ribs right (Costa Verea), who are married with sternum through cartilage, 2 pair...

Throat

Throat
The neck is a part of the body. The neck is an area designated front of the lower jaw to the sternum, on the side defined areas of the angle of the mandible and trapezoidal muscle. It completed the transition to the shoulders and collarbone. The neck is very dynamic and variable region of the body. This helps him axial load-bearing structure – the cervical spine consisting of seven cervical vertebrae, then the muscles that create 5 layers of muscle. Neck muscles The first layer is a skin muscle, i.e. musculus platysma This layer contains a rocking, ie. Musculus sternocleidomastoideum Clamping muscles to the hyoid bone, muscle and over- podjazylkové, supra musculi and infrahyoidei In this layer are oblique muscles, roll, musculi scaleni Muscles clamping the spine and skull Jugular veins The largest vessels in the neck the carotid artery, internal and external – internal carotid artery and external, and the jugular vein external and internal – the jugular vein internal...

Thyroid gland

Thyroid gland
Thyroid (Latin glandula thyroidea) is very important endocrine gland, which is important for the production of hormones T3 (tryjodtyronin) and T4 (thyroxine). These hormones are iodine, without which it would not be possible to produce hormones. Hormones are an integral part of the human body and help in many areas, poor thyroid function can much torment. Anatomy of the thyroid gland The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck to the cranial (upper) part of the trachea, extending almost to the larynx. The gland has a red color and in the normal state is not palpable. Above the thyroid gland is located so. Adam’s apple or thyroid cartilage (cartilago thyroidea), which is especially for men very well discernible to the naked eye. Thyroid has a smooth surface and is divided into two lobes on either side of the trachea. The follicles (small sacs) which is formed by gland are stocked small capillaries. These vesicles are formed already mentioned hormones T3 and T4 and also t...

Tonsils

Tonsils
Almonds (tonsile) is an organ of the lymphatic system. In the human organism we find more kinds almonds, some of which occur in pairs. Such as lymph nodes are part of the immune system Almonds story (also almonds neck, palatine tonsile) Couple light pink lymph bundles, located on both sides of the back of the neck, between two bunk arches. When you open your mouth almonds are clearly visible. Previously their removal in children common precautionary measure, allowing to prevent viral and bacterial diseases, mainly reoccurrence of tonsillitis. Today, this surgery has rarely accessed. Indeed tonsils meet in the human body and its purpose and in particular the entry of infection in the upper respiratory tract. Almonds are the largest in childhood, due to puberty begin to dwindle. Almonds nose (tonsile pharyngea) Lymphatic tissue in the lining of the nasopharynx. Like almonds cervical act as defenses against infections. If overcome infection (e.g., repeated fever), the protection function...

Upper digestive tract

Upper digestive tract
In the upper digestive tract takes place mainly mechanical processing of food associated with its digestion. Nutrient absorption is minimal. Mentioned processes begin in the mouth where teeth chewing mechanically Melno food. This is especially adapted stools. Comminuting food is mixed with saliva and salivary amylase – cleaving enzyme digestion carbohydrates / sugars, yielding easily spolknutelné wet bite that enters through the pharynx into the esophagus. The tubular, located in the chest cavity 30-40 cm long body through peristaltic contractions transports swallowed a bite in the stomach. In the esophagus, therefore there is no digestion of food, only the transport authority. In the stomach leads to further mechanical processing, blending chyme with gastric juices and enzymes. Continued digestion of carbohydrates and, moreover, also occurs to cleave proteins / proteins. This process involved the enzyme pepsin, chymosin and the low pH of 1.5. The pH is so low due to the hydrochl...

Upper respiratory tract

Upper respiratory tract
Upper respiratory tract are part of the respiratory system. They consist of the nasal cavity(osseous) and by nasal cavities (paranasal sinuses), nasopharynx (nasofarynx), throat (pharynx). Used for the transport of oxygen to the lower respiratory routes. Upper airways are lined with mucous membrane on the surface of the ciliated columnar epithelium with mucinous glands, which aims to capture pollutants and contaminants, but also microbes and viruses in the air we breathe and transporting them out again. Additionally, the air she breathes moistens and warms. Nasopharynx region of the pharynx and is rich in lymphoid tissue, which also captures the infectious microorganisms....

Upper urinary tract

Upper urinary tract
Into the upper respiratory tract are counted kidneys and ureters. Kidney (renes, nefros) The parenchymal organ paired bean-shaped and dark red to brown in color. Retroperitoneally they are stored under the abdominal cavity, where they are protected fins and adipose tissue. Their dimensions are 9-12 × 6 × 3 cm, weighs about 150 grams. They consist of several parts: Renal medulla (Medullarenalis) in which they are called. Pyramids, renal chalices, draining urine into the renal pelvis. Kidney cortex (Cortexrenalis) – brighter layer in which is located nephrons Renal pelvis (Pelvis renal artery) converge in the renal chalices, which brings her urine, she continues into the ureter. Nephron: basic functional and structural unit of the kidney. It consists of a filter portion, i.e. glomeruli, fetal capillaries in the housing – Bowman pouch. Tubular parts – the passages of the first and second order, which connects the loop of Henle. Renal function Urine – through her wo...

Ureter

Ureter
Ureter (ureter) is paired tubular body measuring about 25-30 cm, its diameter is 5-7 mm. Extends in the retroperitoneum, for abdominal cavity, but also has a part that enters into the abdominal cavity of the pelvis and a part extending through the wall of the bladder and orifice so called. Trine bladder (deltoid area in the fundus / scum / bladder enclosed outcome ureters and the mouth of the urethra). Function ureter Ureter is transported definitive urine produced by the kidneys to the bladder. The plot is active, ie. Through peristalsis. To contractions occur every 10 to 12 seconds. In the case of wedge urinary stone it is the peristaltic movements which form undulující / volatile / pain, i.e. colic. Peristalsis of the ureter is controlled plexus, in its upper part are known. Pacemaker rhythm indicating neurons, nerve cells. When the inflow of urine into the ureters, urinary spindles formed, ie. Portions of urine in a relaxed part of the ureter. This spindle is further advanced throu...

Urethra

Urethra
Urethra (urethra) carries urine accumulated in the bladder out of the body. Are there differences between male and female urethra. The section of the urethra, which anneals to the bladder, is called the neck of the bladder. In the female urethra is a length of about 3-5 cm, while the male is much longer. It is a long 20 to 22 cm. On it are recognizable three parts: Prostatic – urethra passes through the prostate, is a length of 2.5 cm The middle part of the urethra, a length of 1.2 cm, is also called membranózníuretra it passes muscular and fibrous septum between the labia bones Penile – part of the urethra through penis Construction of the urethra Urethra creates in its part closer to the bladder smooth muscle will uninfluenced, which creates a sphincter, the sphincter, the bladder (m. Sphinctervesicae), while the lower part is composed of striated, will impressionable muscles, which creates sphincter – m. sphincterurethrae. It is therefore very active arrest. Urethr...

Veins

Veins
Veins, also called veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart. Arteries are similar, but have a thinner and more pliable wall. Especially the lower limbs are affected by varicose veins that can result in inflammation of the vein. Varicose veins troubled mankind since time immemorial. They are caused by hydrostatic pressure, which pulls blood down to the ground, whereas the natural movement of the lower limbs in opposite. Blood moves up the veins to the heart. Due to these two different forces may weaker spot veins cause so-called bulging. This greatly slows down blood circulation to the legs and allows the creation of additional bulge. Varicose veins are characterized by a feeling of heavy legs and often is, those who have either too often sitting or standing. Venous inflammation occurs in people who have slower blood circulation occurred for damage veins or blood for some reason starts to precipitate. In the hands of these infections are rare (it is usually a result of intr...

Vocal cords

Vocal cords
The vocal cords are two elastic ligaments, which is used to create voice. They are placed on the front side of the throat, where it protects the cartilage of the pitch. Between the two ligaments is triangle-shaped voice slot. It was at this point arises voice. Making voice Exhaled air column vibrates strained ligaments of the pitch. Subsequently, the voice slot opens and air is released through it out. This creates a sound that influence other components perceive as our voice. His height and tone determines the length, voltage and speed of oscillation ligaments. Generally, the higher tone women because their vocal cords vibrate to two hundred times per second. For men, it’s a hundred times.In boys, the influence of testosterone increases the growth of the vocal cords. This causes the transformation of the child’s voice to an adult.This process is called mutation. The final hue produced by passing voice resonant cavities, which are disposed above the larynx. Each person has...