Description cataracts

Cataract is a disease that affects the lens of the eye. It’s part of the eye, which is located behind the iris, and its composition is mainly of proteins and water.

The lens works on a principle similar to camera optics. It has the ability to change its optical power and by focusing on either distance or near vision. Refracted rays passing through it so as to face to the point of sharpest vision on the retina.

When cataract or cataract, as the name implies, there is a clouding of the lens. The cause is usually aging eye lens, diabetes (diabetes mellitus), or injury is induced by drugs, especially corticosteroids.

The reason why the formation of the lens opacity is to change the chemical composition of the lens, especially proteins. Changing the ionic composition, increasingly pigment is deposited there and retains more water. The lens so bulky, increases its size and weight increases.

When examined on a microscopic slit lamp is seen in the lens of cascading white formations that may have resembled waterfalls. These pathological structures cause a decrease in visual acuity,especially into the distance because the rays that passes through a lens are refracted to other locations on the retina and brain deciphered their picture is fuzzy, blurry, as if a man looking through frosted glass.

Trauma is a common cause of unilateral cataracts. Created after the injury, which passes through the eye, after blunt blow to the eye when it comes to his bruises, but even after the electric shock.Of course, it is not a rule that if you hit in the eye or into your eye jabs an object that now must think about the cloud formation! But it is good to know that such a possibility exists.

The so-called toxic cataract is caused by drugs, in particular corticosteroids (more details below), miotics (substances that act artificially constriction of the pupil), and some active substances which are part of substances affecting the psyche. The emergence of the cloud is dependent on the doses of medication, and it is sometimes a problem because each organism reacts after her, for everyone has been such a “dangerous” a different value.

Cataracts can occur as a disease associated with other diseases, mention here, for example, glaucoma (glaucoma).

This disease can be congenital. Congenital (congenital) cataract can develop in a fetus whose mother experienced during pregnancy, infectious disease.


Risk factors for cataracts

They are diverse, so we will discuss them one by one.

1st) UV – especially long-term eye exposure to sunlight without adequate protection. It is necessary to use sunglasses, that have the ability to filter out the vast majority of harmful UVA and UVB rays.The most important thing is to protect the eyes of young children.

2nd) Smoking – especially long-term smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day increases the likelihood of cataract threefold.

3rd) Diabetes – diabetics with cataract occurs earlier and more frequently than in the healthy population.

4th) Obesity

5th) Corticosteroid – corticosteroids are substances which harvest in the human body form and adrenal cortex. They are often used to treat a wide range of diseases. Treatment unfortunately brings a number of adverse side effects and one of them is the possibility of cataract formation.Unfortunately there is no known safe dose corticosteroids, where they would avoid side effects.Regarding cataracts, the dose is very individual from individual to individual.

6th) Genetic disposition – a hereditary incidence of cataracts in the family can accelerate the development of this disease. Cataracts can develop at an earlier age.


Prevention of cataracts

The eyes are a sensitive organ and needs to really care about them. During sunbathing protect quality sunglasses, reducing smoking and change their diet and lifestyle to prevent obesity, which may have on the development of the disease also affected.

In the case of diabetes is only recommended adherence to the dietary regimen and regular checksophthalmologist.


Signs and symptoms of cataracts

Cataract is a disease that develops slowly, so in the early stages of it have no idea, because it does not limit you. Once the lens becomes cloudy more, begin to feel decreased visual acuity,especially into the distance. Suddenly, even with glasses you are able to remotely read a sign or recognize a traffic sign.

Vision is gradually becoming blurred, as if looking at the world through a milky glass. It starts suddenly mind sharp lighting, because the patient has the feeling that it dazzles, even before it had the same intensity of light problems done.
It is also possible that each eye will see a different vivid colors of objects.



Cataract surgery only leads the way. Another possibility is unfortunately not available. Options on how to operate a few, but all pursuing the same objective. The aim is to remove the lens in which turbidity occurred.

A possible variant is for example operation, which is named extracapsular extraction. The translation means for removing the lens from its housing. Housing is maintained and is inserted into it (implanted) artificial lens that ensures that the patient in the eye continues to see. The operation is performed under a microscope.

The basic reason for the surgery is a decrease in visual acuity, but the indication is very individual and you should always take into account the needs and wishes of the patient. Early surgery is suitable for patients who additionally have glaucoma.

But one has to be very careful eye, because there is a possibility that due to the severe impact of the lens is released from the case, and that could “fall” into the interior of the eyeball. One symptom is a fairly clear – to immediately stop the eye can see.


How do I help myself

In this case, the best means of timely visit ophthalmologist who alone can help in the treatment, because as already mentioned, the only possible therapy is surgery.


Complications cataracts

A complicating factor is the decrease in visual acuity.

Other names: cataract

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