Carcinoid


Carcinoid

Description carcinoid

The name itself – carcinoid – a comment that this type of tumor is beyond ordinary division tumors and for many of its properties considered so. Semimalign I (polozhoubný).

This is a rare tumor, which has a relatively special behavior. The frequency of its occurrence is 1.5: 100,000, meaning that it in the Czech Republic every year about 200 people ill. These numbers do not necessarily reflect because carcinoid may actually have more people, but they have no problems so that they could carcinoid have not even know.

Carcinoid belong to the group. Neuroendocrine tumors. For these tumors are characterized, that they are composed of cells having characteristics typical of both nerve cells – contain similar slučeniny and cells producing the endocrine hormones.

They include explicitly rare tumors such as insulinoma, gastrinoma, etc., but by far the most common is precisely Carcinoid (up to 50% of all neuroendocrine tumors).

Carcinoid cancer that grows very slowly. Most commonly occurs in the digestive tract (approximately 65% of all carcinoids) – in the small intestine, appendix, stomach, colon and rectum, in the glands of the digestive tract – liver and pancreas. Also, we can be found in the respiratory tract (about 25% of carcinoid tumors). Distinctly rarely are found in the ovaries.

Sometimes behaves benign and quite often it happens that for him the bearer does not know. It is then usually accidentally discovered in the treatment of other diseases (e.g. in the appendix after the operation for appendicitis).

Other times can torment its wearer effects of hormones that it produces, but it is not the rule.Carcinoid can produce a range of hormones. Other hormones produced by carcinoid tumors found in the airways and other then those who are in the digestive system.

Most often constitute carcinoid hormone serotonin. This, if it is in circulation large quantity can cause a variety of symptoms, which are collectively called carcinoid syndrome.

Carcinoid can also behave like a malignant tumor and form distant metastases.

If the affected person gets carcinoid syndrome can be caused by a suspected carcinoid laboratory to check blood tests and urine tests – the urine in increased quantities are indole acetic acid. The final diagnosis was determined but only after microscopic examination of a sample of tumor tissue.

It described the so-called. Typical and atypical carcinoid according to their microscopic structure.Atypical carcinoid tumor has a worse prognosis. Because even the microscopic determination is difficult, at present, a tissue sample evaluated by two different pathologists experienced – ie. Double reading.

Risk factors and prevention carcinoid

Development of carcinoid reason is not known, and it is therefore difficult to mention the risk factors that could prevent the development of this disease.

If you have recently been diagnosed with carcinoid and suffering from carcinoid syndrome, avoid stress, alcohol, tea, tomatoes, bananas, pineapple, kiwi and then certain drugs. All these substances because they can lead to the development of so-called. Carcinoid crisis, in which there is an escalation of symptoms karcinoidového syndrome.

symptoms of carcinoid

The presence of carcinoid tumors may be its bearers for a long time and sometimes unknown, even to the end of his long life and may not know about the tumor.

Symptoms of carcinoid tumors arise partly from his location, and the fact that make hormones that cause signs karcinoidového syndrome.

If the carcinoid tumor located in the digestive tract, can cause a wide range of symptoms from abdominal pain, loss of weight, diarrhea or complete closure of the intestine manifesting severe so.Ileózním state when vomiting occurs, stopping his activity of intestinal and not even the flatulence and stool.

Carcinoid tumor in the lungs can cause coughing or coughing up phlegm with blood so.hemoptysis, chest pain, recurring pneumonia.

If carcinoid produces hormones (mostly serotonin, as well as bradykinin, tachykinin, kallikrein, histamine, ACTH and others), and their blood level exceeds the limit, when the body is able itself is decomposed so as not to cause adverse effects, there are symptoms so. Karcinoidového syndrome.Carcinoid syndrome but affects only about 10% of patients with this tumor. Initially, the tumor is small and the production of hormones is low, symptoms karcinoidového syndrome usually appear at the stage of metastasis, but it is possible to appear even when distant metastases are present.

Symptoms karcinoidového syndrome are varied, corresponding to a wide variety of hormones that tumor produces.

A typical symptom is called. Flush. It is a binge flushing of the face, neck, and sometimes upper chest. Sick perceive it as a warm feeling or itching. It takes a few seconds or minutes.

Other featured an accelerated heartbeat accelerates the heart rate decreases (sometimes even go up) blood pressure, pulling the bronchi (bronchospasm), causing a feeling of breathlessness. The patient has abdominal cramps, suffering from diarrhea. There are also various skin manifestations – pigmentation, redness.

If the redness does not go away and join headaches, watery eyes and bronchoconstriction, it is a tzv.atypický carcinoid syndrome.

treatment of carcinoid

This is how the treatment will unfold depends on several factors: the extent of disease, histologic type of tumor and the presence of signs karcinoidového syndrome.

Treatment consists of surgical removal of the tumor (if even possible), but also it is necessary to treat complications that are caused by overproduction of hormones.

Small tumors up to 2 cm can be surgically called. Locally removed. If the tumor is larger, it is necessary to proceed to so-called. Radical performance, when the addition of the tumor and its adjacent areas are removed and the catchment lymph nodes. If the tumor is so large that it causes symptoms of intestinal obstruction, it is necessary to remove it, although there is no surgical complete cure does not only to relieve symptoms. Such treatment is called palliative then.

Besides surgical therapy, there is a further option called. Systemic therapy (strikes the entire body). There is chemotherapy, which however is not the case carcinoid very effective and known.Biological therapy (essence feeding substances of different composition, which interfere with the various immune and inflammatory processes which accompany the disease). In the case of carcinoid serves substances such as interferon, somatostatin and similar substances which influence the symptoms caused by hormone decelerates tumor growth and probably extend the lifetime.

How to help treat carcinoid

Treatment of carcinoid is in the hands of specialists, you yourself in it, you can participate by avoiding situations that you might make it worse. In particular it is the reduction of stress and alcohol.

Your diet should contain high protein and low fat content. Eat whole grain breads, carbohydrates are then sufficiently represented in fruits and vegetables. (But rather omit the tomatoes, pineapple, kiwi, bananas, since they may cause a flush)
Avoid diets that you can produce signs karcinoidového syndrome, in the worst case, a carcinoid crisis. Not suitable for spicy food, or a diet high in fat. Do not use large amounts of food at once.

complications carcinoid

In patients suffering from carcinoid syndrome can be spontaneously or stress, anesthesia, chemotherapy, respectively. manipulation of the tumor during surgery caused so. carcinoid crisis.

This state, at which the symptoms escalate karcinoidového syndrome. It is associated with a significant flush, abdominal pain, frequent diarrhea, accelerated heart beats, pressure drop may result in heart failure. The bronchi are broadly convulsively downloaded, it leads to a significant feeling of breathlessness. Adds a disturbance of consciousness, which may end up coma.

Prolonged carcinoid syndrome occurs deposition of connective tissue in the heart valves that disrupt their function, and can therefore detect heart failure.,

Other names: Neuroendocrine tumors, tumors of the ECL cells

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