Cancer of the esophagus

Cancer of the esophagus

Description of esophageal cancer

Cancer of the esophagus (rather esophageal cancer – cancer of the esophagus) is very serious, fortunately not too frequent, diseases. Epidemiological studies are in the presence of known significant geographic differences. Most patients are Asians, which is put into the context of the local drinking their teas contain a lot of tannins.

Like other tumors is the development of esophageal cancer conditional genetic variation. In this case, there are mostly APC gene. Deviation arises mostly on the basis of risk factors, sometimes the cancer develops from another chronic disease of the esophagus, a rare but it is a random occurrence in otherwise healthy people without risk factors.


Risk factors for esophageal cancer

Smoking, alcohol and especially their combinations greatly increase the risk of esophageal cancer (and other cancers of the upper digestive tract – the mouth, tongue, lip, etc.).

More frequent occurrence in men around the 50th to 60th year, which is probably due the fact that just men are more than women, smokers and drinkers of alcohol.

It is harmful and chewing tobacco and betel nut, which is also popular in Asian countries. It is an addictive herbal drugs inducing a pleasant feeling in the mouth, good mood and suppresses hunger and thirst. For Aborigines has betel chewing in a moderate degree of positive effect on the metabolism (eating foods low in dry matter), but unfortunately this plant also contains tannins, whose frequent use can lead to esophageal cancer.

Among the diseases of the esophagus are at risk especially those that somehow narrow tube, the esophagus and lead to congestion before meals point narrowing. Among them harder reflux esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus caused by the return of food and gastric juices from the stomach into the esophagus – a reflex), achalasia, esophageal narrowing from chemical causes (usually burns with acid or lye) and rarer, and Sjogren’s syndrome Paterson-Kelly.

Barrett’s esophagus is a complication of reflux esophagitis, which varies the oesophageal mucosa to replace the mucous membrane of the intestine and esophagus tumor (adenocarcinoma time) there develops almost always.

Also, some diseases of other body parts can associate with esophageal cancer. It’s called. Tylose – skin disease manifesting rough areas of skin on the hands and feet, not too frequent. Then it may be a viral infection (HPV virus) causing cervical carcinoma and Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome – tumor specific cells producing pancreatic hormone gastrin, which then causes gastric hyperacidity.

It is worth noting, of course, heredity factors, but we have no influence.


Prevention of esophageal cancer

How can we defend cancers of the esophagus? Stop smoking and mainly not to get into some life difficult social situation that could lead to alcoholism. Not chew tobacco or betel nut, and drinking tea containing tannin habits, so in this respect we have nothing to worry about. Teas, which are sold in our country, not harmful.

If you have gastroesophageal reflux disease (reflux esophagitis), it is necessary to pay attention todietary measures, observe the intake of medicines and go for regular checks on your clinician to not develop complications that could lead to cancer of the esophagus.

When Should this nevertheless happen, checks advantage in this case would be the early detection of cancer associated with better prognosis and therapeutic assumptions. Often she had come to esophageal cancer late (alcoholics are homeless people who do not go to the doctor until their unbearable difficulties) when no longer help man.


Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer

Patients usually makes trouble sticking swallowing morsels (ie. Dysphagia – dys = bad, FAGI = swallowing), and these difficulties are stepping up in painful swallowing, which is a sign of advanced in the process. It is significant that the earliest stuck swallowing mouthfuls of dry solids (eg. Croissant bun) and later in other stages of the disease is worsening swallowing too mushy and liquid food.

Some patients in the early days of complaining of neck pain and treat it themselves Brufen and other analgesics. This of course only delaying diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Besides pain upon swallowing in advanced stages can ill vomit stagnant content bites and sometimes appears in his stool digested blood – stool is black, tarry and very smelly, not to miss.This is caused by bleeding from carcinoma.

Patients also typically have a hoarse quiet voice speaking to them can be exhausting. They tend to be quite tired and it is also noticeable weight loss, which can reach up to 15 pounds in three months.


Treatment of esophageal cancer

Hope for a cure lies only in a rather complex operation (surgery, but is currently being developed and endoscopic methods) that is feasible for patients in good condition (ie, the sooner the tumor comes, the better). In total it is about 25-35% of cases.

Other patients can be treated by radiation or chemotherapy or a combination thereof, but the results may not be satisfactory for some tumors.

Relief for patients is to restore the passage of the esophagus and the elimination of problems with swallowing. This can be achieved by using the prosthesis (artificial replacement) or stents, which seemed to stiffen the esophagus and makes it therefore through-hole, despite the narrowing of the tumor. Another option is to release the laser beam passing through endoscopic or so.Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), which is a tiny hole in the stomach, which serves food (in pureed form or Nutridrinks) without passing through the esophagus. It is certainly a better way than serving life parenteral nutrition (the “kapačkách”), which during prolonged use can damage the liver and is also uncomfortable for the patient.


Complications of esophageal cancer

Threatening tumor patient except metastases (liver) just obstruction of the esophagus and the associated risk of inadequate nutrition. The body is then wasted with hunger and begins to consume its own tissues (muscles). Therefore, it is important to do everything so that the patient can receive food and painlessly his quality of life was preserved.

Other names: esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, esophageal cancer

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