Description anorexia

Anorexia nervosa belongs to the group eating disorders.

It is first and foremost a mental illness characterized by a constant effort to lose weight. His dream of a lean physique ill meet either severe restrictions on the amount of food ingested, or were excessive exercise. Others control their calorie intake by vomiting after eating or abuse laxatives, diuretics.

People suffering from anorexia are obsessed with their weight and body shape. Still trying to reach proportions that no longer correspond to their age and height. In extreme cases, the bone skinny but still they feel fat. Interestingly, the other affected by anorexia patients are able to very accurately estimate their weight and proportions in centimeters, but together they completely lack real insight into your body.

Although anorexia revolves around food, it is not a disease which concerns just food. It is mainly a very unhealthy way to deal with the emotional problems perfekcionizmem and desire for control.Patients with anorexia they feel more valuable, what they are leaner.

Anorexia occurs mainly in girls and women, boys are rare.Maximum occur in girls aged 14-18 years.


The causes of anorexia

Precise and specific causes of anorexia are not known. The role played by the combination of different influences. Especially applied biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors.

Biological factors – indicates a possible genetic relationship emergence of anorexia in some people. For example, young women whose mothers or sisters had an eating disorder are at increased risk of disease. The influence of genetics is confirmed by studies on twins. There are also studies of the role of serotonin card, which is one of the mediators in the brain in depression, operative, when an anorexia.

Psychological factors are applied such as low self-esteem, emotional instability and tendency to perfekcionism, which leads to the fact that patients with anorexia see themselves will never think that they are sufficiently thin.

Cause also lies in the socio-cultural aspects when modern Western societies cultivate a desire for thinness. Media are flooding us with photos of homeless skinny models and actresses. Fame and success have been associated with slimness. This pressure and the desire to be slim operates primarily among young girls.


Risk factors for anorexia

Although the specific cause of anorexia is not known, there are certain factors whose presence increases the risk of developing.

This includes dieting alone. People hubnoucí based dieting are mostly encouraged by the positive evaluation of the neighborhood and the new look of your body, and it motivates them to further weight loss, which in some individuals may gradually get out of control.

Also, people who lose weight unintentionally, for example after an illness, may be a result of the positive response to their new surroundings appearance gradually encourage a new extreme weight loss. Conversely, it is also a risk factor for weight abode.

The period of life when a person is vulnerable, crave recognition around and try to enjoy it aspuberty.

Also, changes in life is a risk. Whether it’s a change of school, work, new housing, partnership breakup, death or serious illness in the vicinity. All this can cause stress. One way to deal with a situation over which we have no control, is to focus on something we can control. In this case it may be just the intake of food.

A risk factor is a profession or career. Especially athletes, especially athletes, gymnasts, figure skaters, actors, dancers and models are at increased risk.


prevention of anorexia

Unfortunately, no known guaranteed steps to help prevent the emergence of anorexia or another eating disorder.

It needs to be responsive and timely to recognize the signs. If you notice on a family member or acquaintance who suffer from lower self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their appearance and holding various strict diet, try to talk to him about his problems. Although you will not be able to prevent development of the disease, you can talk to him about healthy behavior and possibilities to help.


Signs and symptoms of anorexia

Anorexia has a lot of symptoms. There are the symptoms of physical, partly mental, emotional or result in changes in behavior.

Among the physical symptoms include extreme weight loss, leading to vyhublému appearance.
Usually sleep disorders and patients they are then through the day tired, tend dizziness and fainting.
Tend to present changes in the blood picture, especially lack of red krvinek- anemia.
Patients are dehydrated. They dry and scaly skin, which has a yellowish tint. There are problems with the hair. They are sparse, they fall out. They also fragile and brittle nails. In contrast, on the face, back, legs and hands appeared fine hair papery appearance.
Patients also tend to have problems with low blood pressure, slow heart rate, and there are alsoabnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia) with palpitations. They still cold.
Gastrointestinal problems are manifested primarily as constipation and abdominal pain.
For women, there are problems with menstruation, which is not present or is irregular.Consequently, not only fertility problems, but also reduces bone density and osteoporosis appears with a higher susceptibility to fracture.
Consequently, frequent vomiting occurs erosions on the enamel of the teeth, which may eventually lead to their loss.

Changes in behavior are apparent to frequent rejection of food denial of hunger. Much overconscientious often strictly practicing.

They might have a bad mood, they are almost without interest. Often suffer depression. They are vulnerable and easily agitated. They feel uncomfortable and avoiding communication with others.They are associated with impaired concentration and attention.

Very often they are dealing with food. They tend to be good cooks, good cooks and forcing their friends to eat a lot, but they are not hiding their food, they lie. When you go weigh heavier the dress clothes and give into it weights. Refusing food, always find some excuse why not to eat.When they eat so little food and only the low-fat and low-calorie. Food thoroughly before consumption and weighs carve into tiny pieces, and after it chewed spit it out. Repeatedly and frequently weighed and checked herself in the mirror. Wear loose clothing layered and still complain that they are fat.

Patients disguise his illness and it is sometimes difficult to recognize signs and symptoms. If you have concerns and are not sure whether your known person suffering from anorexia, watch out for these signs.


treatment of anorexia

Treatment is either an outpatient or in more serious cases, with significant weight loss and effect on organ function is necessary hospitalization.

This acute treatment is aimed at saving lives. The mortality rate is 5-15%. Provides the assurance of increased energy intake in the form of an intravenous diet, treatment of disruption of the internal environment and cope with psychological stress.

In the next phase it is necessary insulation (interruption of contacts with households) and the development of new catering order with the aim of gradual weight gain.

In the treatment of anorexia is applied in addition to medical interventions to treat malnutrition and its consequences also psychotherapy. Good results are mainly individual therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, group and family therapy. It is necessary to adjust the conflict situation around the patient and family. In the treatment are often more trouble on the part of parents (mostly mothers) than the patients themselves. Anorexia nervosa is a disease of the family.

Not yet known drugs that are specifically for the treatment of anorexia. Apply, but as an adjunct therapy when they help the symptoms and consequences of anorexia (depression, loss of interest, anxiety). They are used mainly antidepressants and neuroleptics.

Furthermore give anabolic steroids, vitamins, iron preparations and drugs supporting appetite.In addition to increasing weight in girls good sign also put a stop to finish the menstrual cycle.


How can I help myself

If you suffer from anorexia, it can be very hard to really take care of myself. It is important to strictly adhere to the treatment plan.

Do not skip any psychotherapy sessions, under no circumstances do not change the eating order. Do not isolate yourself from caring family members and friends who care about you to heal. Keep in mind that they are just for your own good.

Furthermore, trying their best to resist the urge to check your weight, avoid stares in the mirror.


complications of anorexia

Anorexia nervosa can have many complications. It may even result in death. It is reported that approximately 5-15% of anorexia fatal. Death can occur suddenly, are the most common cause rhythm disturbances of cardiac activity and total disruption of the internal environment as a result of starvation.

It reduced the amount of potassium (that itself has a negative effect on heart activity), sodium and chloride in the blood, which correlates with the whole body dehydration.

They are associated with kidney problems and lungs. There are pneumonia, emphysema.

Effect on the digestive tract is manifested constipation, abdominal pain, bloating and nausea.

Low bone density in osteoporosis risk to facilitate the formation of fractures in the elderly.

Another complication is irregular or no menstruation in women and decreased testosterone levels in men anorexic. These disorders can lead to fertility disorders.

When a patient with anorexia in a state of severe malnutrition, a lot of damage organs, including the brain, heart and kidneys. The danger is that disability can be irreversible and does not adjust when anorexia gets under control.

In addition to the physical consequences it is important to mention the consequences of anorexia mental state. The commonest or deepening depression, anxiety, drug abuse is a non-noble.

Other names: anorexia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, anorexia mentalis, eating disorder

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